The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.6(FAO, 2001)
Body elongate, subcylindrical or slightly compressed. Head long, pointed, scaly on sides and posteriorly on top. Mouth nearly horizontal, large. Jaws elongate, the lower one considerably projecting; large, sharp, flattened or conical teeth of unequal size on jaws and palatines; usually 1 or 2 strong, sharp canines near tip of lower jaw. Maxilla either not reaching anterior margin of eye, or to just below anterior margin. First gill arch with many platelets, each bearing distinct small spines. Two short dorsal fins, widely separated; the first with V strong spines inserted about opposite to or behind pelvic fins; the second with I spine and 8 soft rays; anal fin with II spines and 9 soft rays; origin of pelvic fins before first dorsal-fin origin; tip of pectoral fins not reaching to first dorsal fin; caudal fin forked in all stages. Lateral-line scales 112 to 133. Body without bars and stripes; a dusky blotch present behind axil of pectoral fins; caudal fin darkish.
Nocturnally active, but occurring in large schools above lagoon patch reefs and along outer reef slopes during the day. Feeds mainly on fishes, but also on penaeid shrimps and squids.
Widespread in the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific, from East Africa to the Marquesas Islands; north to southern Japan. It is a common species in Taiwan.
: 9. Body elongate and sub cylindrical with small cycloid scales; head long and pointed. Mouth large and horizontal, the tip of the lower jaw protruding; intermaxilla non-protractile. Preoperculum broadly rounded. Lower limb of the first fill arch with spiny tubercles. First dorsal fin origin opposite or before the pectoral tip, the first spine shorter than the second. Color is generally blackish above and silvery below.
Nocturnally active, but occurring in large schools above lagoon patch reefs and along outer reef slopes during the day (Ref.
). Feeds mainly on fishes, but also on penaeid shrimps and squids. Sold fresh, frozen or dried salted. Reports of ciguatera poisoning need confirmation.
Life cycle and mating behavior
, 1984. Sphyraenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 19.4 - 28.2, mean 26.2 (based on 976 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00477 - 0.01153), b=2.94 (2.81 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 4.4 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Capuli, Estelita Emily
Ortañez, Auda Kareen
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