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Sphyrna corona Springer, 1940
SCALLOPED BONNETHEAD
Scalloped bonnethead shark

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Sphyrnidae   Sphyrna

Sphyrna corona
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Sphyrna corona

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Overview
Main identification features
  • hammer angular;snout length greater than 40 percent head width
  • origin 2nd dorsal fin over middle a
  • mouth arch narrow
  • a: rear edge ~straight
A hammerhead shark with moderately broad, but short, angular, mallet-shaped side extensions on head; width of hammer 24-29% of total length; anterior margin of head broadly arched with very shallow side and central indentations; length before mouth usually more than 40% of head width; mouth narrowly arched; first dorsal fin moderately large and erect, its rear margin concave; second dorsal fin base about half length of anal fin base; origin of second dorsal fin above middle of anal fin; rear margin of anal fin nearly straight.

Generally grey on back and sides, white below; hammer and pectoral, anal and pelvic fins yellowish.

Size: reaches a maximum size of 92 cm; size at birth about 25 cm. This is the smallest species of hammerhead.

Habitat: a coastal species, demersal over soft bottoms.

Depth: 0-100 m?.

Central Gulf of California to Peru, and Malpelo.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 100 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves; octopus/squid/cuttlefish; sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins; bony fishes; Pelagic crustacea.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=25; Southern limit=-15; Western limit=-111; Eastern limit=-73; Latitudinal range=40; Longitudinal range=38.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Mud; Sand & gravel; Soft bottom only; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove).
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed.
Length Max: 92 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); TEP endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Springer, S., 1940., Three new sharks of the genus Sphyrna from the Pacific Coast of tropical America., Stanford Ichthyol. Bull., 1:161-172.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Sphyrna corona Springer , 1940

Scalloped bonnethead Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Sphyrna corona   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Sphyrna corona (Scalloped bonnethead) Sphyrna corona
Picture by Robertson, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal.   Tropical; 32°N - 19°S, 115°W - 69°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: southern Mexico to northern Peru, probably including the Gulf of California.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 92.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244 )

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on the continental shelf, presumably inshore. Viviparous, presumably with 2 young per litter. Probably the smallest species of hammerhead.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Near Threatened (NT)  ; Date assessed: 30 April 2004

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: subsistence fisheries FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 15.9 - 25.2, mean 20.8 (based on 20 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00339 (0.00150 - 0.00763), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.9   ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=2). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Binohlan, Crispina B. Fish Forum
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