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Sphyrna media Springer, 1940
SCOOPHEAD
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Sphyrna media
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Sphyrna media

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Sphyrna media
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Sphyrna media
Sphyrna media
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Sphyrna media
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Overview
Main identification features
  • hammer angular;snout length ~1/3 hammer width
  • mouth arch rounded
  • a: rear edge concave
A hammerhead shark with moderately broad, but short mallet-shaped side extensions of head (width of hammer 22-33% of total length); front margin of head broadly arched with very shallow lateral and central indentations; length before mouth usually ~1/3 of head width; mouth arch rounded; first dorsal fin moderately large and erect, its rear margin noticeably concave; second dorsal fin base about half length of anal fin base; origin of second dorsal fin above middle of anal fin; rear margin of anal fin margin strongly concave.

Grey brown on back and sides, lighter on under surfaces.

Reported to attain 150 cm; size at birth 30-35 cm.

A coastal species, demersal over soft bottoms.

Depth: 0-100 m?.

Western Atlantic and eastern Pacific (Lower Gulf of California to Peru, Malpelo).



Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 100 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: Pelagic crustacea; octopus/squid/cuttlefish; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins; bony fishes; mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=29; Southern limit=-6; Western limit=-113; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=35; Longitudinal range=35.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: New world (East Pacific + West Atlantic); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); TEP non-endemic; All species.
Habitat: Mud; Sand & gravel; Soft bottom only; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove).
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 150 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Springer, S., 1940., Three new sharks of the genus Sphyrna from the Pacific Coast of tropical America., Stanford Ichthyol. Bull., 1:161-172.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sphyrna&speciesname=media ---> http://192.134.151.83/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sphyrna&speciesname=media
http://192.134.151.83/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sphyrna&speciesname=media ---> https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sphyrna&speciesname=media
https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sphyrna&speciesname=media ---> https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/summary/Sphyrna-media.html
Sphyrna media, Scoophead : fisheries
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Sphyrna media Springer , 1940

Scoophead Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Pictures | Google image Image of Sphyrna media (Scoophead) Sphyrna media
Picture by Murch, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes( genus , species ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Probable misspelling of sphyra (Gr.), hammer, referring to their hammer-shaped heads. ( See ETYFish ) ;   media: Latin for middle, allusion not explained, probably referring to its oculonarial expanse being “roughly intermediate in shape between that of hammerheads [subgenus Sphyrna ] and shovelheads [subgenus Platysqualus ]”. ( See ETYFish ) .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 8 - ? m (Ref. 58018 ). Tropical; 35°N - 34°S, 118°W - 31°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Panama to southern Brazil. Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Ecuador and probably northern Peru.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217 ); common length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217 )

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Little-known. Found in inshore areas over the continental shelves. Viviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Utilized fresh for human consumption and for fishmeal.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435 )

  Critically Endangered (CR)  (A2bcd); Date assessed: 08 February 2019

CITES

Appendix II: International trade monitored

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic





Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes : genus , species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome , nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go , Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804 ):  PD 50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00347 (0.00157 - 0.00767), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.0   ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100). Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100). Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

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