TaiBIF | Search | All Living Things


Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837)
GREAT HAMMERHEAD
Hoe-head Shark; Cestracion mokarran Rüppell, 1837; Sphyrna ligo Fraser-Brunner, 1950; Zygaena mokarran Rüppell, 1837

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Sphyrnidae   Sphyrna

Sphyrna mokarran
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Sphyrna mokarran

Click on map for details about points.

Links
80x5 - 240x3 - 240x4 - 320x1 - 320x2 - 320x3 - 640x1 - 640x2
Set display option above.
Click on images to enlarge.
Sphyrna mokarran
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Sphyrna mokarran
Sphyrna mokarran
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Sphyrna mokarran
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • hammer: wide, front straight + slight notch
  • 1st dorsal fin : very tall, pointed, curved
  • 2nd dorsal fin greater than 3rd gill slit
A hammerhead shark with broad, narrow-blade side extensions on the head (with of hammer 23-27% of total length); front margin of head nearly straight in adults, with shallow central and side indentations; first dorsal fin very tall and curved, with pointed tip; height of second dorsal fin > length of 3rd gill slit; second dorsal and anal fins with strongly notched rear edges, their bases about equal; pelvics large, with concave rear borders.

Grey brown on back and sides, whitish below; no prominent markings on fins.

Said to reach 610 cm, but uncommon above 350 cm; size at birth 50-70 cm.

A coastal pelagic and semi- oceanic species.

Depth range 1-300 m.

Circumtropical distribution, in the eastern Pacific from southern Baja California and the Gulf of California to northern Peru, Malpelo and the Galapagos.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 300 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish; mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves; sharks/rays; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); bony fishes.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=32; Southern limit=-15; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-73; Latitudinal range=47; Longitudinal range=42.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); TEP non-endemic; West + East Pacific (but not Central); "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Water column; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef and soft bottom; Corals; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove).
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Offshore; In & Offshore.
IUCN Red List: Data deficient; Listed.
Length Max: 610 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Bottom;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rüppell, W. P. E. S., 1837., Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig., Fische des Rothen Meeres, 1837:53-80.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villavicencio Garayzar , C. J. , Mariano Meléndez , E. and Downton Hoffmann, C., 1997., Tiburones capturados comercialmente en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:201-236.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


Supported by
go to Discover Life's Facebook group

Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
   Top | See original

http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/8fbdf576-83fd-4b5d-96f0-65072692e032 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/8fbdf576-83fd-4b5d-96f0-65072692e032
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts

Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory

You are here:  Environment home » Biodiversity » ABRS » AFD » ANIMALIA (Kingdom) » CHORDATA (Phylum) » VERTEBRATA (Subphylum) » GNATHOSTOMATA (Higher Taxon) » PISCES (Higher Taxon) » CHONDRICHTHYES (Class) » ELASMOBRANCHII (Subclass) » CARCHARHINIFORMES (Order) » SPHYRNIDAE (Family) » Sphyrna Rafinesque, 1810 (Genus) » Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837)

Species Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837)

Museums

Regional Maps

External Links

CAAB : 37019002 Taxon concept Sphyrna_mokarran last modified 2014-03-13 14:41:28.159

Species Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837)

Great Hammerhead , Hoe-head Shark

 

Taxonomic Decision for Synonymy

 

Generic Combinations

 

Distribution

States

New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia


Extra Distribution Information

Mandurah, WA to Sydney, NSW; tropical, temperate, circumglobal.


IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)

IMCRA

Timor Transition (1), Timor Province (2), Northern Shelf Province (25), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Northwest Transition (3), Southwest Shelf Transition (30), Southwest Shelf Province (31), Southeast Shelf Transition (37), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Continental shelf, inshore, marine, pelagic.

Extra Ecological Information

Surface to 80 m

 

General References

Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls. [44]

Allen, G.R. & Swainston, R. 1988. The Marine Fishes of North-Western Australia. A field guide for anglers and divers . Perth, WA : Western Australian Museum vi 201 pp., 70 pls. [24]

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [548]

Compagno, L.J.V. 1998. Family Sphyrnidae. pp. 1361-1366 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes . Rome : FAO Vol. 2 687-1396 pp. [1365]

Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. 2005. A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World . London : Collins 368 pp. [324]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [274]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp. [290]

Macbeth, W.G., Vandenberg, M. & Graham, K.J. 2008. Identifying Sharks and Rays; A guide to Commercial Fishers . Sydney : New South Wales Department of Primary Industry pp. 71. [49]

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [11] (74, as Sphyrna ligo )

Pepperell, J. 2010. Fishes of the Open Ocean a Natural History & Illustrated Guide . Sydney : University of New South Wales Press Ltd 266 pp. [190]

Stead, D.G. 1963. Sharks and Rays of Australian Seas . Sydney : Angus & Robertson 211 pp. 63 figs. [200] (as Sphyrna ligo )

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89 (1): 11-127 [33] (82, as Sphyrna ligo )

 

Common Name References

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [548] ( Great Hammerhead )

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [11] (Hoe-head Shark)

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Great Hammerhead )

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
16-Apr-2012 16-Apr-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)

Accessibility | Disclaimer | Privacy | Freedom of information | © Commonwealth of Australia
Last modified: Thursday, 13 March 2014 2:41:28 PM AEDT

Department of the Environment and Energy
GPO Box 787
Canberra ACT 2601 Australia
+61 (0)2 6274 1111 ABN

Our land. Our plan. Our future.
Australian Government  

Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
   Top | See original

&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://taibnet.sinica.edu.tw/eng/taibnet_species_detail.php?gen=Sphyrna&spe=mokarran

Following modified from FishBase
   Top | See original

http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sphyrna&speciesname=mokarran ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sphyrna&speciesname=mokarran
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sphyrna&speciesname=mokarran ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Sphyrna-mokarran.html
Sphyrna mokarran, Great hammerhead : fisheries

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell , 1837)

Great hammerhead Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Sphyrna mokarran   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Sphyrna mokarran (Great hammerhead) Sphyrna mokarran
Picture by Murch, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Rüppell .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 1 - 300 m (Ref. 37816 ), usually 1 - 100 m (Ref. 89972 ).   Subtropical; 40°N - 37°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumglobal in coastal warm temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 13562 ). Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Uruguay, including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean and Morocco to Senegal. Indo-Pacific: throughout the Indian Ocean; Ryukyu Islands to New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California, Mexico to Peru. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 210 - 300 cm
Max length : 610 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244 ); common length : 370 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13562 ); max. published weight: 449.5 kg (Ref. 40637 ); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 116211 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. A very large hammerhead also with a notch at the center of the head (Ref. 5578 ). Front margin of head gently curved in juveniles, becoming nearly straight in adults, with slight median notch (Ref. 26938 ). 1st dorsal fin very high and curved; 2nd dorsal and pelvic fins high and with deeply concave rear margins. Light grey or grey-brown above, white below; fins without conspicuous markings (Ref. 5578 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A coastal-pelagic, semi-oceanic shark, found close inshore and well offshore, over the continental shelves, island terraces, and in passes and lagoons (Ref. 244 , 58302 ). Often bottom and reef associated at 1-80 m (Ref. 58302 ). Prefers to feed on stingrays and other batoids, groupers and sea catfishes, but also preys on other small bony fishes, crabs, squid, other sharks, rays, and lobsters (Ref. 244 , 13562 , 1602 ). A viviparous species, with 13-42 of about 56 to 70 cm young in a litter (Ref. 26938 , 1602 ). Potentially dangerous to people (Ref. 13562 ) but only few, if any, of the attacks on people can be definitely attributed to it because of the apparent difficulty of distinguishing large hammerhead species involved in attacks (Ref. 244 ). Caught occasionally by target shark longline, demersal tangle net and tuna gillnet fisheries (Ref.58048). Meat utilized for human consumption (fresh, fresh-frozen, dried-salted, and smoked), liver oil for vitamins, fins for soup, hides for leather, and carcasses for fishmeal (Ref. 244 ). Its large fins, including the tail, sail-like first dorsal fin, are prized in the Oriental sharkfin trade (Ref. 47737 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous with a yolk sac placenta and 13-42 young in a litter (Ref. 244 ); 6-42 pups after gestation period of ~11 months (Ref.58048). Size at birth between 50 to 70 cm TL (Ref.58048, Ref. 13562).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Endangered (EN)  (A2bd+4bd); Date assessed: 01 March 2007

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Appendix II: International trade monitored

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Appendix II: Migratory species conserved through agreements

Threat to humans

Other (Ref. 244 )




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

E-book | Field guide | Identification keys | Length-frequency wizard | Life-history tool | Point map | Classification Tree | Catch-MSY |

Special reports

Check for Aquarium maintenance | Check for Species Fact Sheets | Check for Aquaculture Fact Sheets

Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 21.3 - 28.9, mean 27.2 (based on 4410 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00229 (0.00132 - 0.00397), b=3.10 (2.95 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.3   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=30; tm=8.2; Fec=13). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Luna, Susan M. Fish Forum
Comments & Corrections
Sign our Guest Book Back to Search Random Species Back to Top
Accessed through: Not available FishBase mirror site : Stockholm, Sweden Page last modified by : mrius-barile - 20 July 2016
Total processing time for the page : 0.2177 seconds

Updated: 2020-10-23 06:57:52 gmt
TaiBIF | Search | All Living Things | Top
© Designed by The Polistes Corporation