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Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758)
SMOOTH HAMMERHEAD
Common Hammerhead Shark; Hammerheaded Shark; Smooth Hammerhead Shark; Cestracion zygaena Linnaeus, 1758; Zygaena zygaena Linnaeus, 1758; Sphyraena lewini Griffith, 1834; Squalus zygaena Linnaeus, 1758

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Sphyrna zygaena
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Overview
Main identification features
  • hammer: wide, center convex, no notch
  • 1st dorsal fin large, straight
A large hammerhead shark with broad, narrow-blade lateral extensions on the head; width of hammer 26-29% of total length; front margin of head broadly convex, with prominent side indentations, but no central indentation; first dorsal fin moderately large and erect, its rear margin concave; anal fin slightly larger than second dorsal fin, its rear margin prominently notched; origin of second dorsal fin slightly behind origin of anal fin.

Dark olive to dark grey-brown on back and sides, white below; undersides of pectoral fin tips dusky.

Grows to about 500 cm; size at birth 50-61cm.

A coastal-pelagic and semi-oceanic hammerhead often sighted near the surface.

Depth: 0-200 m.

Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas; in the eastern Pacific from California to Ecuador and the Revillagigedos, Galapagos and Malpelo. Most common in cooler temperate waters.




Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 200 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: sharks/rays; bony fishes; octopus/squid/cuttlefish; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs).
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=42; Longitudinal range=40.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Offshore; In & Offshore.
IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed.
Length Max: 500 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Bellido-Millán, J.M. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C.J., 2002., Pesqueria artesanal de tiburon en la region central del Golfo de California. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:143-152.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Compagno , L. J. V. and Cook, S. F., 1995., The exploitation and conservation of freshwater elasmobranchs: status of taxa and prospects for the future., Journal of Aquariculture and Aquatic Sciences, 7:62-90.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan, D.S., 1895., The fishes of Sinaloa., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2), 5:377-514.
  • Lea, R.N. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 2000., Observations on fishes associated with the 1997-1998 El Niño off California., CalCOFL Rep., 41:117-129.
  • Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Mexican shore and pelagic fishes collected from Acapulco to Cape San Lucas during the 1957 cruise of the "Marijean"., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 3:18pp.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Starks, E. C., 1906., On a Collection of fishes made by P. O. Simons in Ecuador and Peru., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 30:761-800.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villavicencio Garayzar , C. J. , Mariano Meléndez , E. and Downton Hoffmann, C., 1997., Tiburones capturados comercialmente en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:201-236.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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Species Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758)

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CAAB : 37019004 Taxon concept Sphyrna_zygaena;Sphyrna last modified 2014-03-13 14:41:28.159

Species Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758)

Smooth Hammerhead , Common Hammerhead Shark, Hammerhead Shark, Hammerheaded Shark, Smooth Hammerhead Shark

 

Generic Combinations

 

Miscellaneous Literature Names

 

Distribution

States

New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia


Extra Distribution Information

Coral Sea (18°S), QLD to Monte Bello Islands, WA; temperate, subtropical (tropical in some parts of world), circumglobal.


IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)

IMCRA

Northeast Transition (19), Norfolk Island Province (21), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Southwest Shelf Transition (30), Southwest Shelf Province (31), Great Australian Bight Shelf Transition (32), Spencer Gulf Shelf Province (33), Western Bass Strait Shelf Transition (34), Bass Strait Shelf Province (35), Tasmanian Shelf Province (36), Southeast Shelf Transition (37), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39)

Other Regions

Coral Sea Islands Territory

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Continental shelf, inshore, marine, pelagic.

Extra Ecological Information

Surface to 80 m

 

General References

Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls. [44]

Allen, G.R. & Swainston, R. 1988. The Marine Fishes of North-Western Australia. A field guide for anglers and divers . Perth, WA : Western Australian Museum vi 201 pp., 70 pls. [24]

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [553]

Compagno, L.J.V. 1998. Family Sphyrnidae. pp. 1361-1366 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes . Rome : FAO Vol. 2 687-1396 pp. [1366]

Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. 2005. A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World . London : Collins 368 pp. [326]

Gilbert, C.R. 1967. A revision of the hammerhead sharks (family Sphyrnidae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 119 (3539): 1-88 pls 1-10

Glover, C.J.M. 1994. Family Sphyrnidae. pp. 138-141 figs 108-111 in Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds). The Fishes of Australia's South Coast . Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs. [140]

Hutchins, J.B. & Swainston, R. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete field guide for anglers and divers . Perth : Swainston Publishing 180 pp. [24, 120]

Kuiter, R.H. 1993. Coastal Fishes of South-eastern Australia . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 437 pp. [11]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [275]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp. [291]

Macbeth, W.G., Vandenberg, M. & Graham, K.J. 2008. Identifying Sharks and Rays; A guide to Commercial Fishers . Sydney : New South Wales Department of Primary Industry pp. 71. [51]

McCulloch, A.R. 1929. A check-list of the fishes recorded from Australia. Part I. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 5 : 1–144 [13] (as Sphyrna leweni , in part)

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [11] (73 as S. lewini, in part)

Pepperell, J. 2010. Fishes of the Open Ocean a Natural History & Illustrated Guide . Sydney : University of New South Wales Press Ltd 266 pp. [190]

White, W. 2008. Shark Families Heterodontidae to Pristiophoridae. pp. 32-100 in Gomon, M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds). Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast . Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp. [74]

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89 (1): 11-127 [33] (81, as S. lewini, in part)

 

Common Name References

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [553] ( Smooth Hammerhead )

Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds) 1994. The Fishes of Australia's South Coast . Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs. [140] (Common Hammerhead Shark, Hammerhead Shark, Smooth Hammerhead Shark)

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Smooth Hammerhead )

Waite, E.R. 1928. Check list of the marine fishes of South Australia. Journal of the Pan-Pacific Research Institute 3 (1): 3-13 [3] (Hammerheaded Shark)

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
16-Apr-2012 16-Apr-2012 MODIFIED
30-Jul-2011 MODIFIED

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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Carcharhiniformes  
 Family Sphyrnidae  
 Genus Sphyrna  
  Sphyrna zygaena    (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Sphyrna zigaena Spyrna zygaena Squalis pictus Squalus carolinensis Squalus malleus Squalus zygaena Zygaena subarcuata Zygaena vulgaris   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001); FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
Character: A large hammerhead shark with expanded prebranchial head. Head width 26-29 % of total length. Anterior margin of head very broadly arched with prominent lateral indentations, but no medial indentation. Preoral snout about 1/5 to less than 1/3 of head width. Anterior teeth with moderately long, very stout cusps, and smooth or weakely serrated edges. Posterior teeth mostly cuspidate and not keeled and molariform. First dorsal fin origin over pectoral insertions, its free rear tip well aneterior to pelvic origins. Second dorsal fin low, less than anal fin height, its inner margin long, about twice fin height. Anal fin slightly larger than 2nd dorsal fin. Total vertebral centra 193-206. Colour dark olive or dark grey-brown above, white below, undersides of pectoral fin tips dusky. 
Habitat: An active, common, coastal-pelagic and semi-oceanic hammerhead. Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta. Litter size 29-37. Maximum size 370-400 cm. Males maturing at about 210-240 cm and females maturing at about 256. Size at birth 50-61 cm. 
Distribution: Western Atlantic from Scotia to Florida and Virgin Islands. Southern Brazil to southern Argentina. Eastern North Atlantic from Mediterranean and British Isles to Senegal, Cape Verde Islands, Guinea, and Ivory Coast. Western Indian Ocean including South Af 
Utility: This species is caught with pelagic longlines, handlines, and even pelagic and bottom trawls. It is utilized fresh, dried salted, and possibly smoked for human consumption. Hides are processed fro leather. Liver oil is extracted for vitamins. Fins are pro 
Name Code: 383090
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus , 1758)

Smooth hammerhead Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 13562 ); depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 5578 ), usually 0 - 20 m (Ref. 55303 ).   Subtropical; 59°N - 55°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Widespread in temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 13562 ). Western Atlantic: Canada to the Virgin Islands; Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: British Isles to Côte d'Ivoire, including the Mediterranean. Indo-Pacific: South Africa to Sri Lanka; southern Siberia to Viet Nam (Ref. 13562 ); southern Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii (Ref. 13562 ). Eastern Pacific: northern California, USA to Chile.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 265.0 , range 265 - ? cm
Max length : 500 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388 ); common length : 335 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13562 ); max. published weight: 400.0 kg (Ref. 9987 ); max. reported age: 21 years (Ref. 116211 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. A large hammerhead with a notch at the center of head; 1st dorsal fin moderately high, 2nd dorsal and pelvic fins low (Ref. 5578 ). Olive-grey or dark grey above, white below (Ref. 5578 ). Fins nearly plain, dusky or blackish tipped (Ref. 13562 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs inshore and well offshore (Ref. 5578 ), over continental and insular shelves (Ref. 244 ). Coastal, pelagic, and semi-oceanic, but often bottom associated at 1-139 m (Ref. 58302 ). Migrates northward in summer; young often in large aggregations of hundreds of individuals (Ref. 13562 ). Prefers to feed on small sharks, skates and stingrays, but also preys on bony fishes, shrimps, crabs, barnacles and cephalopods (Ref. 244 ). Viviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Regarded as being dangerous to people, though only few can be tentatively attributed to this species due to its occurrence in temperate waters (Ref. 244 ). Reported to cause poisoning (Ref. 4690 ). Caught occasionally by shark and tuna longline fisheries (Ref.58048). Meat utilized fresh, dried-salted, and possibly smoked for human consumption; liver oil for vitamins, fins for soup, hide for leather, and carcasses for fishmeal (Ref. 244 ). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166 ). Become sexually mature when 250 to 300 cm long. The female gives birth to 30 - 40 young (Ref. 35388 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449 ), with 20 to 50 young per litter (Ref. 6871 )after a gestation period of 10-11 months (Ref.58048). Size at birth between 50-60 cm TL (Ref. 13562 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2bd+3bd+4bd); Date assessed: 01 October 2005

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Appendix II: International trade monitored

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 244 )




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 11.8 - 28.9, mean 26.5 (based on 3124 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00255 - 0.00682), b=3.03 (2.89 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.9   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=21; tm=8.8; Fec=20-40). Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 1 stock assessment. Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Low .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Luna, Susan M. Fish Forum
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