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Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758)
SMOOTH HAMMERHEAD
Common Hammerhead Shark; Hammerheaded Shark; Smooth Hammerhead Shark; Cestracion zygaena Linnaeus, 1758; Zygaena zygaena Linnaeus, 1758; Sphyraena lewini Griffith, 1834; Squalus zygaena Linnaeus, 1758

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Sphyrnidae   Sphyrna

Sphyrna zygaena
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Sphyrna zygaena

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Sphyrna zygaena
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Sphyrna zygaena
Sphyrna zygaena
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Sphyrna zygaena

Sphyrna zygaena
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Sphyrna zygaena
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Overview
Main identification features
  • hammer: wide, center convex, no notch
  • 1st dorsal fin large, straight
A large hammerhead shark with broad, narrow-blade lateral extensions on the head; width of hammer 26-29% of total length; front margin of head broadly convex, with prominent side indentations, but no central indentation; first dorsal fin moderately large and erect, its rear margin concave; anal fin slightly larger than second dorsal fin, its rear margin prominently notched; origin of second dorsal fin slightly behind origin of anal fin.

Dark olive to dark grey-brown on back and sides, white below; undersides of pectoral fin tips dusky.

Grows to about 500 cm; size at birth 50-61cm.

A coastal-pelagic and semi-oceanic hammerhead often sighted near the surface.

Depth: 0-200 m.

Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas; in the eastern Pacific from California to Ecuador and the Revillagigedos, Galapagos and Malpelo. Most common in cooler temperate waters.




Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 200 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: sharks/rays; bony fishes; octopus/squid/cuttlefish; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs).
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=42; Longitudinal range=40.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Offshore; In & Offshore.
IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed.
Length Max: 500 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Bellido-Millán, J.M. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C.J., 2002., Pesqueria artesanal de tiburon en la region central del Golfo de California. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:143-152.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Compagno , L. J. V. and Cook, S. F., 1995., The exploitation and conservation of freshwater elasmobranchs: status of taxa and prospects for the future., Journal of Aquariculture and Aquatic Sciences, 7:62-90.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan, D.S., 1895., The fishes of Sinaloa., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2), 5:377-514.
  • Lea, R.N. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 2000., Observations on fishes associated with the 1997-1998 El Niño off California., CalCOFL Rep., 41:117-129.
  • Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Mexican shore and pelagic fishes collected from Acapulco to Cape San Lucas during the 1957 cruise of the "Marijean"., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 3:18pp.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Starks, E. C., 1906., On a Collection of fishes made by P. O. Simons in Ecuador and Peru., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 30:761-800.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villavicencio Garayzar , C. J. , Mariano Meléndez , E. and Downton Hoffmann, C., 1997., Tiburones capturados comercialmente en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:201-236.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sphyrna&speciesname=zygaena ---> http://192.134.151.83/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sphyrna&speciesname=zygaena
http://192.134.151.83/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sphyrna&speciesname=zygaena ---> https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sphyrna&speciesname=zygaena
https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Sphyrna&speciesname=zygaena ---> https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/summary/Sphyrna-zygaena.html
Sphyrna zygaena, Smooth hammerhead : fisheries, gamefish This page is sponsored by
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Sphyrna zygaena ( Linnaeus , 1758 )

Smooth hammerhead Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Sphyrna zygaena   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes( genus , species ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Probable misspelling of sphyra (Gr.), hammer, referring to their hammer-shaped heads. ( See ETYFish ) ;   zygaena: zygaina , ancient Greek name for hammerhead sharks, derived from zygon , yoke, alluding to yoke-like shape of cephalofoil. ( See ETYFish ) .
More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 13562 ); depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 5578 ), usually 0 - 20 m (Ref. 55303 ). Subtropical; 59°N - 55°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Widespread in temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 13562 ). Western Atlantic: Canada to the Virgin Islands; Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: British Isles to Côte d'Ivoire, including the Mediterranean. Indo-Pacific: South Africa to Sri Lanka; southern Siberia to Viet Nam (Ref. 13562 ); southern Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii (Ref. 13562 ). Eastern Pacific: northern California, USA to Chile.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 250.0 , range 265 - ? cm
Max length : 500 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388 ); common length : 335 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13562 ); max. published weight: 400.0 kg (Ref. 9987 ); max. reported age: 21 years (Ref. 116211 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. A large hammerhead without a notch at the center of the curved headhead (Ref. 58085 ); but with prominent lateral indentations; prenarial grooves well-developed; snout short, 1/5 to less than a third of head width; mouth broadly arched (Ref. 114967 ); the first dorsal fin is moderately high, te second dorsal and pelvic fins are low. Colour olive-grey or dark grey above, white belowm, and the undersides of the pectoral fin tips dusky (Ref. 58085 ),

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs inshore and well offshore (Ref. 5578 ), over continental and insular shelves (Ref. 244 ). Coastal, pelagic, and semi-oceanic, but often bottom associated at 1-139 m (Ref. 58302 ). Migrates northward in summer; young often in large aggregations of hundreds of individuals (Ref. 13562 ). Prefers to feed on small sharks, skates and stingrays, but also preys on bony fishes, shrimps, crabs, barnacles and cephalopods (Ref. 244 ). Viviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Regarded as being dangerous to people, though only few can be tentatively attributed to this species due to its occurrence in temperate waters (Ref. 244 ). Reported to cause poisoning (Ref. 4690 ). Caught occasionally by shark and tuna longline fisheries (Ref.58048). Meat utilized fresh, dried-salted, and possibly smoked for human consumption; liver oil for vitamins, fins for soup, hide for leather, and carcasses for fishmeal (Ref. 244 ). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166 ). Become sexually mature when 250 to 300 cm long. The female gives birth to 30 - 40 young (Ref. 35388 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449 ), with 20 to 50 young per litter (Ref. 6871 )after a gestation period of 10-11 months (Ref.58048). Size at birth between 50-60 cm TL (Ref. 13562 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2bd); Date assessed: 08 November 2018

CITES

Appendix II: International trade monitored

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Appendix II: Migratory species conserved through agreements

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 244 )





Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO - Fisheries: landings ; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes : genus , species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Fisheries: landings ; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome , nucleotide | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go , Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201 ): 11.8 - 28.9, mean 26.5 °C (based on 3124 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804 ):  PD 50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00398 (0.00298 - 0.00532), b=3.08 (3.00 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.9   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies. Generation time: 11.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=21; tm=8.8; Fec=20-40). Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 1 stock assessment. Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100). Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649 ):  Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100). Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Low . Nutrients (Ref. 124155 ):  Calcium = 6.91 [1.40, 36.90] mg/100g; Iron = 0.597 [0.147, 1.835] mg/100g; Protein = 21 [19, 23] %; Omega3 = 0.181 [0.072, 0.443] g/100g; Selenium = 28.1 [9.1, 75.6] μg/100g; VitaminA = 6.26 [1.94, 20.86] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.362 [0.178, 0.681] mg/100g (wet weight);

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