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Squatina californica Ayres, 1859
PACIFIC ANGELSHARK
Pacific Angel Shark

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Squatinidae   Squatina

Squatina californica
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Squatina californica

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Overview
Main identification features
  • eye 21 percent of distance between eyes
  • chest and abdomen - no denticles
  • nostril barbel = broad spatula
  • distance between nostrils greater than distance between eyes
Front half of body and head (including pectoral and pelvic fins) roughly diamond-shaped and greatly flattened; with distinct neck before pectorals; distance between nostrils greater than that between eyes; nostrils with wide, spatula shaped barbels; relatively large eyes (4.8 times in space between them) on top of head, with prominent spiracles behind them; mouth at front; pectoral and pelvic fins greatly enlarged; dorsal fins very small, of about equal size, situated near base of tail; lower lobe of tail larger; denticles on lower surface only along margins of the pectoral and ventral fins, and on the tail, with none on the chest and abdomen.

Mottled brown or greyish, with small dark spots of various sizes scattered over body and fins, sometimes forming small ocelli..

Maximum size about 152 cm; size at birth 21-26 cm.


Usually seen resting on sand bottoms.

Occurs in 3-205 m depth.

Temperate; Alaska to Gulf of California.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap).
Depth Range Max: 205 m.
Depth Range Min: 3 m.
Diet: bony fishes; octopus/squid/cuttlefish.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=55; Southern limit=24; Western limit=-135; Eastern limit=-110; Latitudinal range=31; Longitudinal range=25.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva; No pelagic phase.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: TEP non-endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Mud; Sand & gravel; Soft bottom only; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Macroalgae.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed.
Length Max: 152 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent only; Continent; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; California province, primarily; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Ayres, W. O., 1859., On new fishes of the Californian coast., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1), 2:25-32.
  • Bellido-Millán, J.M. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C.J., 2002., Pesqueria artesanal de tiburon en la region central del Golfo de California. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:143-152.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre , J. L. and Balart, E. F., 1997., Contribución al conocimiento de la ictiofauna de fondos blandos y someros de la Ensenada de La Paz y Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:139-150.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of sharks species known to date. Part 1. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(1):1-249.
  • De la Cruz , J. , Galvan , F. , Abitia , L. A. , Rodriguez , J. and Gutierrez, F. J., 1994., Lista sistematica de los peces marinos de Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico). Systematic List of marine fishes from Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico)., Ciencias Marinas, 20:17-31.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Fouts , W. E. and Nelson, D. R., 1999., Prey capture by the Pacífic angel shark, Squatina californica: Visually mediated strikes and ambush-site characteristics., Copeia, 1999:304-312.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Pérez-Mellado, J., Findley, LL. F., 1985., Evaluación de la ictiofauna acompañante del camarón capturado en las costas de Sonora y norte de Sinaloa, México. In Yáñez-Arancibia, A. (Ed.) Recursos pesqueros potenciales de México: La pesca acompañante del camarón., Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México: Cap. 5:201-254.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villavicencio Garayzar , C. J. , Mariano Meléndez , E. and Downton Hoffmann, C., 1997., Tiburones capturados comercialmente en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:201-236.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Squatina californica, Pacific angelshark : fisheries
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Squatina californica Ayres , 1859

Pacific angelshark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2050
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Squatina californica   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Squatina californica (Pacific angelshark) Squatina californica
Picture by Murch, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes( genus , species ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes (Angel sharks) > Squatinidae (Angel sharks)
Etymology: Squatina: Latin for skate, which angel sharks superficially resemble, presumably tautonymous with Squalus squatina Linnaeus 1758 (no species mentioned). ( See ETYFish ) ;   californica: -ica (L.), belonging to: California (USA), referring to type locality in San Francisco Bay. ( See ETYFish ) .
More on author: Ayres .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 3 - 205 m (Ref. 9253 ), usually 3 - 46 m (Ref. 54903 ). Subtropical; 52°N - 7°N, 130°W - 77°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Canada to Gulf of California, south to Panama.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 97.0 , range 86 - 108 cm
Max length : 152 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247 ); max. reported age: 35 years (Ref. 6147 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on the continental shelf and littoral areas (Ref. 247 ).A sluggish and inactive species that buries itself in sand or mud (Ref. 247 ). Also found around rocks, heads of submarine canyons, and sometimes near kelp forests (Ref. 247 ). Feeds on bottom and epibenthic fishes, including croakers, California halibut, and squid (Ref. 247 ). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Can whip up its head and snap very quickly when touched, provoked, harassed, or speared, and can inflict painful lacerations (Ref. 247 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435 )

  Near Threatened (NT)  ; Date assessed: 03 December 2014

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 247 )





Human uses

Fisheries: commercial FAO - Fisheries: landings , species profile ; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes : genus , species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Fisheries: landings , species profile ; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome , nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go , Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201 ): 12.5 - 25.9, mean 21 °C (based on 60 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00293 - 0.01558), b=3.07 (2.88 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.1   ±0.4 se; based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.15-0.16; tm=8-13; tmax=35; Fec=6). Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100). Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium . Nutrients (Ref. 124155 ):  Calcium = 17.5 [3.6, 86.6] mg/100g; Iron = 0.795 [0.206, 2.275] mg/100g; Protein = 19.9 [17.8, 21.8] %; Omega3 = 0.363 [0.162, 0.801] g/100g; Selenium = 26.5 [7.5, 76.0] μg/100g; VitaminA = 9.99 [3.53, 27.74] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.421 [0.203, 0.760] mg/100g (wet weight);

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