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Strongylura exilis (Girard, 1854)
CALIFORNIAN NEEDLEFISH
California Needlefish; Pike needlefish

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Belonidae   Strongylura

Strongylura exilis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Strongylura exilis

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Strongylura exilis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Strongylura exilis
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • robust; beak relatively short
  • scales before dorsal fin has 274-330 rays
  • fins and eye yellowish
  • pectoral: 11-12
Body rounded and relatively robust; beak relatively short; no gill rakers; tail slightly concave; no keel on tail base; no long lobe at front of dorsal; 274-330 scales in front of dorsal fin; 11-12 pectoral rays; 67-74 vertebrae; only left ovary present; 13-17 dorsal rays; 16-19 anal rays; front lobe of anal larger than on dorsal.

Back blue green; belly silver; dark blue stripe along mid-flank; dark pigment at junction of cheek and operculum extends down only to level of center of eye; bone in front of eye not intensely pigmented fins and eye yellowish.

Size: 91 cm.

Habitat: coastal, lagoons with mangroves, enters freshwater.

Depth: surface 0-10 m.

California to the Gulf of California and to northern Peru, the Revillagigedos, Cocos and the Galapagos.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 10 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: bony fishes; Pelagic crustacea.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-13; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-76; Latitudinal range=46; Longitudinal range=42.
Egg Type: Benthic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Estuary; Water column; Freshwater.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 91 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); TEP endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Freshwater; Marine.
Water Column Position: Surface; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Balart , E. F. , Castro-Aguirre , J. L. and De Lachica-Bonilla, F., 1997., Análisis comparativo de las comunidades ícticas de fondos blandos y someros de la Bahía de La Paz, B.C. S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:177-188.
  • Banford, H.M., Bermingham, E. and Collette, B.B., 2004., Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of transisthmian and amphi-Atlantic needlefishes (Belonidae: Strongylura and Tylosurus): perspectives on new world marine speciation., Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 31:833-851.
  • Breder, C.M. Jr., 1928., Scientific results of the second oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1926. Nematognathi, Apodes, Isospondyli, Synentognathi, and Thoracostraci from Panama to Lower California with a generic analysis of the Exocoetidae., Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ., 2(2):1-25.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre , J. L. and Balart, E. F., 1997., Contribución al conocimiento de la ictiofauna de fondos blandos y someros de la Ensenada de La Paz y Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:139-150.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Cuesta, T.C., 1932., Lista de los peces de las costas de la Baja California., Inst. Biol. Mexico, Anal, 3(1):75-80.
  • De la Cruz , J. , Galvan , F. , Abitia , L. A. , Rodriguez , J. and Gutierrez, F. J., 1994., Lista sistematica de los peces marinos de Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico). Systematic List of marine fishes from Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico)., Ciencias Marinas, 20:17-31.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • García-Rodríguez , F. J. and Aurioles-Gamboa, D., 1997., Contribución al conocimiento de la diversidad íctica en la Bahía de La Paz por … lobo marino de California, Zalophus californianus californianus. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:151-162.
  • Girard, C., 1854., Observations upon a collection of Fishes made on the Pacific coast of the United States, by Liut. W. P. Trowbridge, U. S. A., for the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 7:142-156.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Bollman, C.H., 1890., Descriptions of new species of fishes collected at the Galapagos Islands and along the coast of the United States of Colombia, 1887-88, by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer 'Albatross'., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 12:149-183.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Gilbert, C.H., 1880., Notes on a collection of fishes from San Diego, California., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 3:23-34.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Gilbert, C.H., 1882., Description of five new species of fishes from Mazatlan, Mexico., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 4:458-463.
  • Kendall , W.C. and Radcliffe, L., 1912., The shore fishes. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific, ... by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer ALBATROSS, from October, 1904, to March, 1905, Lieut. Commander L.M. Garret, U.S.N., Commanding. XXV., Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 35(3):75-171.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Lovejoy , N. R. and Collette, B. B., 2001., Phylogenetic relationships of new world needlefishes (Teleostei: Belonidae) and the biogeography of transitions between marine and freshwater habitats., Copeia, 2001:324-338.
  • Lovejoy, N. R., 2000., Reinterpreting recapitulation: systematics of needlefishes and their allies (Teleostei: Beloniformes)., Evolution, 54:1349-1362.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Orellana, J.J., 1985., Marine Fishes of Los Cóbanos: Fishes of El Salvador., Sigma Found:126pp.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Fishes collected from the Revillagigedo Islands during the 1954-1958 cruises of the "Marijean."., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 4:10pp.
  • Rubio , R. E. A. and Estupiñan, F., 1990., Ictiofauna del Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga, un Analisis de su Estructura y Perspectivas para su Manejo., Memorias del VII Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias y Tecnologías del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :660-670.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Sánchez Ortíz , C. , Arreola Robles , J. L. , Aburto Oropeza , O. and Cortés Hernández, M., 1997., Peces de arrecife en la región de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:189-200.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Strongylura exilis (Girard , 1854)

Californian needlefish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Strongylura exilis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Strongylura exilis (Californian needlefish) Strongylura exilis
Picture by Robertson, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes (Needle fishes) > Belonidae (Needlefishes)
Etymology: Strongylura: Greek, strongylos = round + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Girard .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 96339 ).   Subtropical; 33°N - 15°S, 118°W - 11°W (Ref. 56981 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: San Francisco in California, USA to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 91.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850 ); common length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9279 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-17; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 16 - 19; Vertebrae : 67 - 74. Caudal fin emarginate (Ref. 9279 ). Branchiostegal rays: 11-12 (Ref. 36575 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Common in coastal and lagoon areas with mangroves (Ref. 9279 ). Also found in bays and harbors (Ref. 36575 ). Penetrate fresh water (Ref. 9279 ). Adults occur in small schools. Feed mainly on small fishes (Ref. 9279 ). Oviparous, with neustonic larvae (Ref. 36575 ). Eggs are attached to vegetation and floating objects via long filaments (Ref. 36575 ). Usually caught with the help of artificial lights (Ref. 9279 ). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9279 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous (Ref. 36575 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Collette, Bruce B. | Collaborators

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann , 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 21 May 2007

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 17.7 - 28.9, mean 25.1 (based on 124 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00126 (0.00055 - 0.00288), b=3.09 (2.91 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.5   ±0.80 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

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