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Strongylura leiura (Bleeker, 1851)
Common Longtom; Hornpike Long Tom; Hornpike Long-tom; Slender Long-tom; Yellowfin Needlefish; Belone ferox Günther, 1866; Belone leiurus Bleeker, 1851; Banded Needlefish

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Belonidae   Strongylura

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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Beloniformes  
 Family Belonidae  
 Genus Strongylura  
  Strongylura leiura    (Bleeker, 1850) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Belone ciconia Belone ferox Belone leira Belone leiurus Belone natalensis Belone tenuirostris Rhaphiobelone dammermani Strongylura leiura leiura Strongylura leiyra Strongylurus leiura Tylosurus leiurus   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999); Fish of Japan(Nakabo, 2002)
Character: Body elongate, laterally compressed, almost rectangular in cross-section. Upper and lower jaws greatly elongate and studded with sharp teeth; gill rakers absent. Anterior parts of dorsal and anal fins forming distinct lobes; dorsal-fin rays 17 to 21; anal-fin rays 23 to 25; pectoral fins not falcate; caudal peduncle without lateral keels; caudal fin emarginate, not deeply forked. Predorsal scales moderately small, 130 to 180. Top of head and back greenish; a silver stripe along sides widening posteriorly, lower sides and ventral surface white; pelvic fins whitish; pectoral fins with a distal dark spot, tip of fins yellow when fresh; tips of dorsal and anal-fin lobes yellowish, some black pigmentation along middle of fins; caudal fin dark with a yellowish tinge to upper lobe. 
Habitat: Inhabit coastal waters and estuaries. Larvae and early juveniles are found in mangroves. Feed mainly on small fishes and crustaceans. 
Distribution: Widespread within the Indo-West Pacific from Somalia and Tanzania to Durban, South Africa east to Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and southeast Asia to New Guinea, Australia, and the Philippines. Reported from southern China. It is common in waters around Taiw 
Utility: Marketed fresh. 
Name Code: 380862
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Strongylura leiura (Bleeker , 1850)

Banded needlefish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | Year 2100
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Strongylura leiura   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Strongylura leiura (Banded needlefish) Strongylura leiura
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes (Needle fishes) > Belonidae (Needlefishes)
Etymology: Strongylura: Greek, strongylos = round + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 3 m (Ref. 86942 ).   Tropical; 30°N - 40°S, 20°E - 168°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Somalia (Ref. 30573 ) and Tanzania to Durban, South Africa (Ref. 3130 ) east to Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and southeast Asia to New Guinea, Australia, and the Philippines. Reported from southern China (Ref. 5317 ). The Australian population is regarded as subspecies Strongylura leiura ferox by Parin (1967) (Ref. 1602 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3678 ); common length : 35.0 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 9682 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17-21; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 23 - 25. Laterally compressed; origin of dorsal fin over 7th-10th ray of anal fin; dorsal fin rays 17-21; anal fin rays 23-25; caudal peduncle without lateral keels; caudal fin emarginate; predorsal scales moderately small, 130-180 (Ref. 9682 ). Caudal fin sub truncate; a black bar on cheek between opercle and preopercle; greenish dorsally, grading to silvery white ventrally.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 5213 ). Larvae and early juveniles are found in mangroves (Ref. 43081 ). Feed mainly on small fishes (Ref. 3130 ) and crustaceans (Ref. 43081 ). Oviparous (Ref. 205 ). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205 ). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9682 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Collette, Bruce B. | Collaborators

Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene , 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314 )

    Not Evaluated  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
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Swim. type
Gill area


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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 24.7 - 29.3, mean 28.5 (based on 2798 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00151 (0.00078 - 0.00294), b=3.05 (2.89 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.9   ±0.64 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

Entered by Froese, Rainer Modified by Casal, Christine Marie V. Fish Forum
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