Eastern Atlantic: Spain to Morocco including the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
, range 12 - 15.2 cm
Max length : 44.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref.
Adults are found near rocks mainly in eel-grass beds, sometimes in salty lagoons. Often gregarious. Oviparous (Ref.
). Nest of seaweed built and kept by male with one or more females spawning. Feed on sea urchins, ophiuroids, bivalves, shrimps and crabs (Ref.
). Rate of growth is slow (Ref.
). Undergoes sex reversal (Ref.
Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras
, 1986. Labridae. p. 919-942. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 16.3 - 21.4, mean 18.9 (based on 116 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00838 - 0.01193), b=3.01 (2.97 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.25-0.89(?); tm=2-3; tmax=15).
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Luna, Susan M.
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