Shark Bay (26°08'S), WA to Moreton Bay, QLD (27°25'S), also Scott Reef, WA (14°03'S); tropical, west Pacific.
Timor Transition (1), Timor Province (2), Northern Shelf Province (25), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)
Body moderately deep, laterally compressed. Eye located well above mouth. Deep groove running obliquely downward from eye to anterior nostril or a little beyond. Nostrils on each side of snout not very close together.Mouth terminal, jawsalmost equal. Premaxillae protrusible. Maxilla reaching vertical through about middle of eye. Teeth in jaws in narrow bands, with the outer teeth enlarged; canine teeth present at anterior end of upper jaw; vomer toothless; tongue with a patch of granular teeth. Maxilla without scales or longitudinal ridges. First gill arch with 4 to 6 gill rakers on upper limb, 10 to 15 on lower limb (total 15 to 21). Dorsal fin continuous, notched slightly near junction of spinous and soft portions; with X spines and 14 to 17 soft rays; one or more anterior soft rays of dorsal fin produced into long filaments in juveniles; caudal fin emarginate. Tubed lateral-line scales 50 to 56. Juveniles whitish along lower half of the body from below eye level. Young with bright blue stripes on yellowish sides; brown back. Adults yellowish brown to reddish. Sometimes show faint vertical barring. Numerous blue lines along scale-rows that are brightest in sub-adults.
Inhabits coral reefs from shallow water to depths of at least 50 m. Occurs solitarily. Feeds mainly on fishes.
Western Pacific from Ryukyu Islands to the Indo-Australian Archipelago. It is found in southern Taiwanese waters.
An excellent food fish, but in Queensland it is considered dangerous due to the chance of ciguatera poisoning. Frequently seen in markets.
Adults inhabit coral reefs, from shallow water to depths of at least 50 m. They occur singly. They feed mainly on fishes. Frequently ciguatoxic in certain areas. Sold in Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref.
). It causes ciguatera poisoning in some areas. Banned for sale in Australia. (Ref.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 24.2 - 28.4, mean 27.4 (based on 477 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00481 - 0.03145), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 4.1 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.23).
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Luna, Susan M.
Olisa, Kristine Elaine Paz
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