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Symphurus callopterus Munroe and Mahadeva, 1989
CHOCOLATE TONGUEFISH
Feather tonguefish

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Cynoglossidae   Symphurus

Symphurus callopterus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Symphurus callopterus

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Symphurus callopterus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Symphurus callopterus
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Overview
Main identification features
  • body: ~ 9-11diffuse bars
  • dorsal fin and anal fin has 10-19 rays black blotches, rear ones darker
  • c: black or 2 black blotches
  • operculum: dark blotch
  • anal fin has 91-98 rays
Body elongate, pointed at tail end, highly compressed; head a little wider than long; eyes small, close together, on left side, with covers over pupils; snout rounded; mouth small, arched (strongly on blind side), at front or a little under snout; preopercle covered with skin; dorsal origin ~above upper eye; 105-114 dorsal rays; 91-98 anal rays; 12 tail rays; no pectoral; only left pelvic present, separate from anal; dorsal and anal fused to tail; scales rough, on both sides; no lateral line; 104-113 lateral scales.

Top side dark brown, 9-11 indistinct dark cross bars; dark blotch on lower 1/2 operculum; rear of dorsal fin and all of anal with 10-19 rectangular black blotches alternating with clear areas; tail black or with black blotches; blind side cream.

Size: 16.2 cm.

Habitat: sand and mud bottoms.

Depth: 20-320 m.

Southern Baja and the mouth of the Gulf of California to northern Peru.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 320 m.
Depth Range Min: 20 m.
Diet: mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves; mobile benthic worms; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs).
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=25; Southern limit=-5; Western limit=-112; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=30; Longitudinal range=34.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Mud; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Soft bottom only; Sand & gravel.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 16.2 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent only; Continent; TEP endemic; Continental TEP endemic; 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • González Navarro , E. and Saldierna Martínez, R., 1997., Zooplancton de la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S. (1990-1991). En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:43-58.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Munroe , T. A. and Mahadeva, M. N., 1989., Symphurus callopterus (Cynoglossidae, Pleuronectiformes), a new deepwater tonguefish from the Eastern Pacific., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 102:458-467.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Symphurus callopterus Munroe & Mahadeva , 1989

Chocolate tonguefish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Symphurus callopterus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Symphurus callopterus (Chocolate tonguefish) Symphurus callopterus
Picture by Robertson, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae (Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 18 - 317 m (Ref. 9294 ), usually 60 - 110 m (Ref. 9294 ).   Tropical; 25°N -

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Mexico to Peru.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9294 ); common length : 14.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9294 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 105-114; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 91 - 98; Vertebrae : 57 - 61. Body flat, somewhat elongated, with an oval anterior border; both eyes on left side of head; dorsal fin with 105 to 114 rays, anal fin with 91 to 98 rays; caudal fin with 12 rays; body chocolate brown, usually with 9 to 11 indistinct transverse bars; lower half of operculum on the eyed side with a small stain; posterior side of dorsal and anal fins dark, rectangular stains (Ref. 55763 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Probably caught as a bycatch in trawl fisheries (Ref. 9294 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Munroe, T.A., F. Krupp and M. Schneider , 1995. Cynoglossidae. Lenguas, lenguetas. p. 1039-1059. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9294 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 29 April 2008

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 14.8 - 21.5, mean 15.9 (based on 27 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00574 - 0.02638), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.3   ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (21 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

Entered by Garilao, Cristina V. Modified by Busson, Frédéric Fish Forum
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