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Synanceia verrucosa Bloch, &. Schneider, 1801
REEF STONEFISH
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Synanceiidae   Synanceia

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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/0629d550-3f84-4e7d-94e2-bb1df3a991e8 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/0629d550-3f84-4e7d-94e2-bb1df3a991e8
https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/0629d550-3f84-4e7d-94e2-bb1df3a991e8 ---> http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/f1f54a69-e2a5-428c-a03d-32d8384cc260;jsessionid=AC45039CCFA1AE4C3C81EF858485BA61
http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/f1f54a69-e2a5-428c-a03d-32d8384cc260;jsessionid=AC45039CCFA1AE4C3C81EF858485BA61 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/f1f54a69-e2a5-428c-a03d-32d8384cc260;jsessionid=AC45039CCFA1AE4C3C81EF858485BA61
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Scorpaeniformes  
 Family Scorpaenidae  
 Genus Synanceia  
  Synanceia verrucosa    Bloch & Schneider, 1801 
Provider: Chen, Jeng-Ping 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Scorpaena brachion Synaceia verrucosa Synanceia brachio Synanceia horrida Synanceichthys verrucosa Synanceichthys verrucosus Synanceja verrucosa Synancejia verrucosa Synancia verrucosa Synancidium horridum   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993)
Character: Dorsal fin with XII-XIV(XIII) spines and 5-7(6) soft rays; anal fin with III spines and 5-6(5) soft rays; pectoral fin with 18-19(18) soft rays; pelvic fin with I spine and 5 soft rays. Eye directed dorsally. Mouth distinctly oblique to almost vertical. Distinct warts all over body. Color of body variable. Colors matching surroundings and extremely well-camouflaged. Venom of dorsal spines fatal. Pelvic and anal fins spines are similarly developed. 12-14 stout grooved spines, each with a large venom sack at its base. 
Habitat: Inhabits reef-associated marine environment, depth -30m. Most widespread stonefish. Found on sandy or rubble areas of reef flats and shallow lagoons and in small pools during low tide well camouflaged among the substrate and sometimes even covered with al 
Distribution: Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to French Polynesia, north to the Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to Queensland, Australia. 
Utility: Not commercial food species. Uncommon in markets. In Hong Kong live fish markets. Aquarium species. 
Name Code: 382895
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Synanceia&speciesname=verrucosa ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Synanceia&speciesname=verrucosa
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Synanceia&speciesname=verrucosa ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Synanceia-verrucosa.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Synanceia verrucosa Bloch & Schneider , 1801

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This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Synanceia verrucosa   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Synanceia verrucosa (Stonefish) Synanceia verrucosa
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Synanceiidae (Stonefishes) > Synanceiinae
Etymology: Synanceia: Greek, syn = as a whole + Greek, aggeion = vein .  More on authors: Bloch & Schneider .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 37816 ).   Tropical; 30°N - 30°S, 30°E - 139°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to French Polynesia, north to the Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to Queensland, Australia.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 24 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3503 ); common length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450 ); max. published weight: 2.4 kg (Ref. 11441 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 12 - 14; Dorsal soft rays (total): 5-7; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 5 - 6. Colors matching surroundings and extremely well-camouflaged (Ref. 48635 ). Pelvic and anal fins spines are similarly developed. 12-14 stout grooved spines, each with a large venom sack at its base (Ref. 37816 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Most widespread stonefish (Ref. 4313 ). Found on sandy or rubble areas of reef flats and shallow lagoons and in small pools during low tide well camouflaged among the substrate and sometimes even covered with algae (Ref. 5213 , 5503 ). Solitary species (Ref. 37816 ). Feeds on fishes and crustaceans. The dorsal fin has 2 grooves serving as seringes of venom; their stings are excruciatingly painful and can occasionally be fatal. A serum exists which is effective if applied immediately after the infliction. World's most venomous fish (Ref. 37816 ). Uncommon in markets. In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253 ). Also Ref. 57406.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

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Poss, S.G. and K.V. Rama Rao , 1984. Scorpaenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3503 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 20 June 2017

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 4690 )




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.3 (based on 3300 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.2   ±0.73 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Unknown .

Entered by Capuli, Estelita Emily Modified by Ortañez, Auda Kareen Fish Forum
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