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Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) >
(Pipefishes and seahorses) >
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref.
. More on author:
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory (Ref.
); depth range 0 - 110 m (Ref.
), usually 3 - 12 m. Subtropical; 71°N - 35°S, 19°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Norway, Faroes and British Isles to Western Sahara, Senegambia, and from Namibia to Cape of Good Hope and northward to the coast of Zululand in the western Indian Ocean (Ref.
). Also throughout the Mediterranean, Aegean and Black seas. Despite literature records, occurrence in the Indo-Pacific outside South African waters lacks conclusive evidence (Ref.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
, range 7 - 25.6 cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
: 3. Light greenish to dark brown in color with variable markings (Ref.
). Snout cylindrical, equal to or less than eye diameter. With 18 - 19 body rings between head and dorsal fin (Ref.
). The snake pipefish (
) is distinguished by the lack of pectoral and anal fins (Ref.
). An elongated bump on top of head behind eye (Ref.
Found in coastal and estuarine waters to depths of at least 110 m (Ref.
); on sand, mud and rough bottoms. Common amongst algae and eel-grass (
) (Refs. 4146, 6733, 88187). Feeds mainly on small crustaceans (Ref.
Ovoviviparous; reproducing on average 3 times each year (Ref.
). Several females depositing partial clutches to a male’s brood pouch under the tail (Refs. 205,
). Up to 400 eggs may be found in a single pouch (Ref.
). Brooding males occur mainly between May and July (Refs.
, 58137). During the breeding season, both males and females were observed to remain low amongst the seagrass in one meadow (Ref.
). Gestation period lasts about 5 weeks and size at birth is 1.7- 3.5 cm (Refs. 58137, 88187, 89330). Aquarium experiments have shown that new born young are benthic, remaining close to the bottom Ref. 89330).
, 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref.
Least Concern (LC)
; Date assessed:
07 May 2013
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
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Catalog of Fishes
| IGFA World Record |
Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes
| Reef Life Survey |
Tree of Life
) | World Records Freshwater Fishing |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 10.3 - 22.6, mean 17.7 (based on 934 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00035 (0.00027 - 0.00047), b=3.12 (3.06 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.3 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=200).
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
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