Dorsal fins close together, the first with prolonged spines anteriorly; first dorsal with XI-XIV spines; second dorsal and anal fins falcate, each followed by 7-10 finlets; pectoral fins very short, no reaching past first dorsal fin; 16-21% fork length; small scales on body; corselet of larger scales developed, but indistinct.
Back metallic dark blue; lower sides and belly silvery white; first dorsal fin yellowish or bluish, second dorsal reddish brown; anal fin and finlets dusky yellow edged with black.
Size: attains 330 cm, common to 200 cm.
Habitat: oceanic, pelagic.
Depth: 0-550 m.
Pacific, in tropical and temperate seas; California to the SW Gulf of California, and the Revillagigedos islands.
The Pacific and Atlantic populations are recognized as a separate species by Collette (1999).
Attributes Abundance: Common. Cites: Not listed. Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos). Depth Range Max: 550 m. Depth Range Min: 0 m. Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish; bony fishes; Pelagic crustacea. Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=19; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-110; Latitudinal range=14; Longitudinal range=8. Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva. Feeding Group: Carnivore. FishBase Habitat: Pelagic. Global Endemism: All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; Pacific only (East + Central &/or West); "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species. Habitat: Water column. Inshore Offshore: Offshore; Offshore Only. IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed. Length Max: 330 cm. Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species. Residency: Vagrant. Salinity: Marine; Marine Only. Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Surface; Surface; Water column only;
Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
Collette , B. B. and Nauen, C. E., 1983., Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. FAO species catalogue Vol. 2., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 125.
Collette, B.B., 1999., Mackerels, molecular, and morphology. In Proc. 5th Indo-Pac. Fish. Conf. Nouméa, 1977. Séret B. & J. Sire. Eds., Soc. Fr. Ichtyol.:149-164.
Collette, B.B., Reeb, C. and Block, B.A., 2001., Systematics of the tunas and mackerels (Scombridae)., Fish Physiology, 19:1-33.
Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo . Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
Joseph , J. , Klawe , W. and Murphy, P., 1988., Tuna and Billfish - fish without a country., Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission:69.
Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
Schaefer, K. M., 2001., Reproductive biology of tunas., Fish Physiology, 19:225-270.
Temminck , C. J. and Schlegel, H., 1844., Pisces. In: Fauna Japonica, sive descriptio animalium quae in itinere per Japoniam suscepto annis 1823-30 collegit, notis observationibus et adumbrationibus illustravit P. F. de Siebold., Pisces, Fauna Japonica, (Parts 5-6):73-112.
New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Western Australia
Extra Distribution Information
Normally found in north Pacific, strays recorded in small numbers from southwest TAS, NSW, WA and QLD; subtropical, north Pacific, also found in New Zealand.
Tasmania Province (10), Southeast Transition (11), Central Eastern Province (12), Tasman Basin Province (13), Central Eastern Transition (15), Kenn Transition (16), Kenn Province (17), Northeast Province (18), Northeast Transition (19), Timor Province (2), Cape Province (20), Northwest Transition (3), Northwest Province (4), Central Western Transition (5), Central Western Province (6), Southwest Transition (7)
Thunnus thynnus orientalis
Body fusiform, elongate, and slightly compressed. Teeth small and conical, in a single series. Gillrakers 27 to 34 on first gill arch. Two dorsal fins, separated only by a narrow interspace, second dorsal fin higher than first dorsal, the first with XIII to XV spines; second dorsal fin with 14 to 16 rays followed by 7 to 8 finlets; anal fin with 14 to 15 rays followed by 7 to 8 finlets; pectoral fins very short, less than 80% of head length; interpelvic process small and bifid. Body with very small scales; corselet of larger scales developed but not very distinct. Caudal peduncle very slender, bearing on each side a strong lateral keel between 2 smaller keels. Swimbladder present. Lower sides and belly silvery white with colourless transverse lines alternated with rows of colourless dots, visible only in fresh specimens; first dorsal fin yellow or bluish; the second reddish-brown; anal fin and finlets dusky yellow edged with black; median caudal keel black in adults.
Epipelagic, usually oceanic, but seasonally coming close to shore. Tolerates ample temperature intervals. Forms schools by size, sometimes with other scombrids. Migrates between June and September in a northward direction along the coast of Baja Californi
known found in the North Pacific from Gulf of Alaska to southern California and Baja California and from Sakhalin Island in the southern Sea of Okhotsk south to northern Philippines. It is mainly found in eastern and southern Taiwanese waters.
Marketed fresh and frozen. The belly portion fetches particularly high prices when containing much fat.
North Pacific: Gulf of Alaska to southern California and Baja California and from Sakhalin Island in the southern Sea of Okhotsk south to northern Philippines. There are four substantiated records of this subspecies in the southern hemisphere: off Western Australia, southeast Pacific (37Â°11'S, 114Â°41'W) and Gulf of Papua (Ref.
). The species occurs mainly in the northern Pacific but ventures into New Zealand waters for at least three months during spring and early summer (Ref.
Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 300 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 200 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. published weight: 450.0 kg (Ref.
); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref.
Mean number of gill rakers 35.9. First ventrally directed parapophysis on vertebra number 8. Dorsal wall of body cavity has a narrow bulge with lateral concavity and wide lateral trough. Caudal keels dark.
Epipelagic, usually oceanic, but seasonally coming close to shore (Ref.
). Tolerates ample temperature intervals (Ref.
). Forms schools by size, sometimes with other scombrids (Ref.
). Migrates between June and September in a northward direction along the coast of Baja California, Mexico and California (Ref.
). A voracious predator that feeds on a wide variety of small schooling fishes and squids, also on crabs crabs and to a lesser degree on sessile organisms (Ref.
). Marketed fresh and frozen.
, 1995. Scombridae. Atunes, bacoretas, bonitos, caballas, estorninos, melva, etc. p. 1521-1543. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 13.9 - 28.1, mean 24.3 (based on 983 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 4.5 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 10.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3-5; tmax=15; K=0.1-0.2).
Prior r = 0.38, 95% CL = 0.25 - 0.57, Based on 2 stock assessments.
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Garilao, Cristina V.
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