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Totoaba macdonaldi (Gilbert, 1890)
TOTUAVA
Totoaba; Totoaba -

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Sciaenidae   Totoaba

Totoaba macdonaldi
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Totoaba macdonaldi

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Overview
Main identification features Totoaba

Body elongate, compressed; snout sharp, lower jaw projecting; mouth large, oblique; no barbels on chin or lower jaw; teeth in narrow bands, somewhat enlarged and conical on outer row of top jaw, including a few sharp teeth at tip of jaw; inner teeth of lower jaw slightly larger than those of outer row; margin of preopercle almost smooth; rakers on first gill arch 15-20 (10-16 on lower limb); dorsal X + I,23-26, with deep notch; anal II, 7-8, 2nd spine moderate; pectoral 15-17 rays; margin of tail pointed, middle rays longest; 50-56 pored lateral line scales.

Dusky silver, fins darker; juvenile spotted.

Reaches 200 cm and nearly 100 Kg.

Habitat: benthic on soft bottoms, entering rivers to spawn, juveniles usually in river mouths and around rock reefs.

Depth: 0-25 m.

Northern 2/3 of the Gulf of California.

Formerly very abundant, but now stock is seriously depleted due to overfishing. A much sought after food fish.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Appendix I.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap).
Depth Range Max: 25 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: bony fishes; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs).
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=32; Southern limit=26; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-109; Latitudinal range=6; Longitudinal range=6.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic.
Global Endemism: TEP non-endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Estuary; Mud; Sand & gravel; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Reef and soft bottom; Reef (rock &/or coral); Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Critically endangered; Listed.
Length Max: 200 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; Northern Gulf of California endemic; Continent only; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine; Freshwater.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Bottom; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Breder, C.M. Jr., 1936., Scientific results of the second oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1926. Heterosomata to Pediculati from Panama to Lower California., Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ., 2(3):1-56.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Gilbert, C.H., 1890., A preliminary report on the fishes collected by the steamer "Albatross" on the Pacific coast of North America during the year 1889, with descriptions of twelve new genera and ninety-two new species., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 13:49-126.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1898., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part II., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1241-2183.
  • Minckley, W.L., 2002., Fishes of the lowermost colorado river, its delta, and estuary: a commentary on biotic change. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:63-78.
  • Musick, J.A., Harbin, M.M., Berkeley, S.A., Burgess, G.H. Eklund, A.M., Findley, L., Gilmore, R.G., Golden, J.T., Ha, D.S., Huntsman, G.R., McGovern, J.C., Parker, S.J., Poss, S.G., Sala, E., & Schmidt, T.W., Sedberry, G.R., Weeks, H., Wright, S.G., 2000., Marine, estuarine, and diadromous fish stocks at risk of extinction in North America (exclusive of Pacific salmonids)., Fisheries, 25:6-30.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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