curved part ll: height spines greater than 60 percent eye
Large fatty eyelid covers rear half of eye; dorsal fin VIII + I, 30-36, without finlet behind; anal fin with II isolated spines followed by I, 27-31; lateral line with extension along top of back under dorsal fins; pectoral fin long, reaching past origin of anal fin; scales along entire length of lateral line forming large spiny scutes, those on curved part of the lateral line relatively large (61-85% of eye diameter); body long and slender, slightly compressed.
Back and top of head metallic blue to dark grey; lower body whitish to pale grey; a black spot at the upper edge of the gill cover.
Size: reaches 70 cm, common to 45 cm.
Habitat: an inshore pelagic species.
Depth: 10-300 m.
Southern Ecuador to Peru, Galapagos and Malpelo. Also occurs in New Zealand.
T. symmetricus, which occurs from California to the Gulf of California, is the sister species of T. murphyi. T. symmetricus has smaller scutes (height = 25-44% of eye diameter) on the curved part of the lateral line than does T. murphyi. A recent study by Stepien + Rosenblatt (1996) indicates that are ongoing genetic connections between these two populations.
Attributes Abundance: Common. Cites: Not listed. Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ). Depth Range Max: 300 m. Depth Range Min: 10 m. Diet: zooplankton; bony fishes; Pelagic crustacea; pelagic fish larvae; pelagic fish eggs. Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=5; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-93; Eastern limit=-79; Latitudinal range=14; Longitudinal range=14. Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva. Feeding Group: Carnivore. FishBase Habitat: Pelagic. Global Endemism: TEP non-endemic; West + East Pacific (but not Central); "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species. Habitat: Water column. Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only. IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed. Length Max: 70 cm. Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Peruvian province, primarily; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; All species. Residency: Resident. Salinity: Marine; Marine Only. Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Surface; Water column only;
BÚarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
Cßrdenas, L., Hernßndez, CE., Poulin, E., Magoulas, A., Kornfield, I., Ojeda, F.P., 2005., Origin, diversification, and historical biogeography of the genus
Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
Jimenez-Prado, P., BÚarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
Kawahara , S. , Uozumiand , Y. and Yamada, H., 1988., First record of a carangid fish, Trachurus murphyi from New Zealand., Japanese J. Ichthyol., 35:212-214.
Nichols, J.T., 1920., A key to the species of Trachurus., Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 42:477-481.
Stepien , C.A. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 1996., Genetic divergence in antitropical pelagic marine fishes (Trachurus, Merluccius, and Scomber) between North and South America., Copeia, 1996:586-598.
South Pacific and Southwestern Atlantic: Eastern Central and South Pacific: off Peru and Chile (Ref.
), incl. incidental in Juan Fern├índez Is. (Ref.
). Reported from off Ecuador (Ref.
). Southwest Pacific: off New Zealand (Ref.
). Southwestern Atlantic: off southern Argentina (Ref.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
, range 39 - 42 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 45.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. reported age: 16 years (Ref.
: 27 - 29. Body elongated and little compressed; teeth small and uniseriate; lower branch of first gill arch with 42 to 45 gill rakers; edge of shoulders girdle (cleithrum) with a small furrow at its upper end but lacking papillae; lateral line completely scaled, the scales becoming large scutes posteriorly; scutes in the area of the median curve 1.1 to 1.6 times the diameter of the eye; nape and back metallic blue or dark gray; flanks and belly pale; dorsal edge of operculum with a black stain (Ref.
). Body elongate and slightly compressed. Body dark blue dorsally, silvery-white ventrally. Black spot on upper posterior margin of opercle. Fins dusky (Ref.
). Pectoral fin falcate and very long (Ref.
Adults are found in the shore and open oceanic waters, in schools. They feed mainly on fish larvae and small crustaceans. Marketed fresh (Ref.
). Utilized canned for human consumption and also made into fishmeal (Ref.
). The species is often found in Juan Fern├índez Is. as an incidental catch of
(Guichenot, 1848) fisheries (Ref.
, 1995. Carangidae. Jureles, p├ímpanos, cojin├║as, zapateros, cocineros, casabes, macarelas, chicharros, jorobados, medregales, pez pilota. p. 940-986. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 14.1 - 22.6, mean 16.5 (based on 352 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00783 - 0.01932), b=2.92 (2.78 - 3.06), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.3 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.09-0.11; tmax=16).
Prior r = 0.52, 95% CL = 0.34 - 0.77, Based on 1 stock assessment.
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Luna, Susan M.
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