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Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758)
ATLANTIC HORSE MACKEREL
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Carangidae   Trachurus


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus , 1758)

Atlantic horse mackerel Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
Reviewed map
Trachurus trachurus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Trachurus trachurus (Atlantic horse mackerel) Trachurus trachurus
Picture by JJPhoto

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Trachurus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 1050 m (Ref. 54256 ), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 54256 ).   Subtropical; 67°N - 38°S, 26°W - 42°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic: Norway to South Africa, round the coast to Maputo.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 23.9 , range 21 - 30 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3197 ); common length : 22.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397 ); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 27584 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 30-36; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 24 - 32. Bluish green, grey or black above, silvery white below; opercle with black spot (Ref. 3197 ). Lateral scales tall and keeled. Gill cover with a distinct black spot. First dorsal fin tall (Ref. 35388 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults form large schools in coastal areas with sandy substrate. They feed on fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846 ). Females lay 140,000 eggs, which hatch into 5mm long larvae (Ref. 35388 ). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233 ). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; can be fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988 ). Divided into two stocks: West stock and North Sea stock. West stock spawns in a belt from the Biscay to Ireland in early spring, migrates north and eastwards to southern Norway and northern North Sea. North Sea stock spawns in the southern North Sea in summer, migrates to central North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | Collaborators

Smith-Vaniz, W.F. , 1986. Carangidae. p. 815-844. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 4233 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2bd); Date assessed: 09 May 2013

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually FAO(fisheries: production , species profile ; publication : search ) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

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Special reports

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Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 10.6 - 16.6, mean 13.3 (based on 165 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00758 - 0.00912), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.7   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.12-0.16; tm=2-4; tmax=11; Fec=70,000). Prior r = 0.46, 95% CL = 0.31 - 0.72, Based on 11 stock assessments. Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (59 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Bailly, Nicolas Fish Forum
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