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Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. A. Mey.
TIE BUSH
Daphne indica L; Daphne foetida Lf; Wikstroemia shuttleworthii Meisn; Wikstroemia shuttleworthiana Meisn; Wikstroemia viridiflora Meisn; Wikstroemia foetida Lf AGray

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Thymelaeaceae   Wikstroemia


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FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Phyllosticta wikstroemiae @ BPI (1)
Melampsoraceae  Melampsora yoshinagai @ BPI (1)

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Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Wikstroemia indica
(L.) C.Meyer, Thymelaeaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?   no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?   no

Common name(s): [ more details ]

Chinese : liao ge wang

English : tie bush

Tahitian : akia, mou‘a, o‘ovao, o‘ovau, oa‘ao, ovau-ao

Habit:   shrub

Description:   "Small twiggy shrub , c. 0.3-1.25 m tall. Branchlets and twigs slender, terete, with scattered fine hairs when very young but soon quite glabrous, striate, blackish-purple. Leaves oblanceolate to elliptic or oblong, 1.5-6 x 0.6-2 (-2.6) cm, subcoriaceous, shining on the upper surface but duller below, glabrous or almost so, cuneate to attenuate at the base, obtuse (sometimes more or less emarginate) or acute at the apex; petiole 1-2 mm, glabrous. Flowers yellow or green, in dense axillary or terminal few-flowered spikes, subsessile or shortly (to c. 3 mm) pedunculate; pedicels c. 2 mm, articulated below the middle. Calyx tube 5-9 mm, sparsely pilose on the outer surface, glabrous within; lobes 2-3 mm, oblong to ovate, obtuse, sparsely pilose dorsally, glabrous within. Anthers oblong, c. 0.75-1 mm. Ovary ellipsoid-oblong, c. 2 mm, glabrous or sparsely pilose about the style base; hypogynal scales 2, linear, acute or usually truncate or incised at the apex; style very short (less than 0.5 mm), stigma large and solitary. Fruit broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, 4-6 mm, naked, fleshy, red or green, glabrous. Seed globose-pyriform, 3.75-5.75 mm, with a short apical point, black" (Dassanayake, 1981; pp. 503-504).

Habitat/ecology:   In Sri Lanka, "an introduced species now abundantly established on sandy roadside banks, grassland, forest margins" (Dassanayake, 1981; pp. 503-504).

Propagation:   Seed

Native range:   "India to China, throughout Malaysia and the Malay Islands to Australia" (Dassanayake, 1981; pp. 503-504).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St.  &
Island group
Location Cited status  &
Cited as invasive  &
Cited as cultivated  &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference  &
Comments
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1983) (voucher ID: PTBG 11833)
Taxon name on voucher: Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. Meyer
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 132)
In thickets, second-growth forests, etc.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St.  &
Island group
Location Cited status  &
Cited as invasive  &
Cited as cultivated  &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference  &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 160-161)
In thickets on hillslopes.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 90)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St.  &
Island group
Location Cited status  &
Cited as invasive  &
Cited as cultivated  &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference  &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, D./Sussman, R. W. (1986) (pp. 147-162)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1994) (voucher ID: PTBG 16646)
Taxon name on voucher: Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. A. Meyer
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
invasive
Kell, S. (1997) (pp. 13-14)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
Invasive Species Specialist Group (2017)

Control:   If you know of control methods for Wikstroemia indica, please let us know .


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 18 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 27 OCT 2006.

Following modified from Flora of Taiwan, National Taiwan University
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