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Xylocopa virginica (Linnaeus, 1771)
Apis virginica Linnaeus, 1771; Apis virginica Drury, 1773; Apis analis Fabricius, 1775; Centris carolina Fabricius, 1804; Xylocopa texana Cresson, 1872; Xylocopa (Xylocopoides) virginica texana Cresson, 1872, valid subspecies; Xylocopa (Xylocopoides) virginica krombeini Hurd, 1961, valid subspecies; Eastern Carpenter Bee; Apis Virginica; Apis analis; Centris carolina; Xylocopa texana; Xylocopa virginica krombeini; Xylocopa virginica texana; Xylocopa virginica virginica

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Apidae   Xylocopa
Subgenus: Xylocopoides

Xylocopa virginica, pollinating Passiflora incarnata
© John Pickering, 2004-2023 · 11
Xylocopa virginica, pollinating Passiflora incarnata

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Xylocopa virginica m
© Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 10
Xylocopa virginica m
Xylocopa virginica, -face 2012-07-16-15.33.23
© Copyright source/photographer · 9
Xylocopa virginica, -face 2012-07-16-15.33.23

Xylocopa virginica, Mid-Atlantic Phenology
© Copyright source/photographer · 9
Xylocopa virginica, Mid-Atlantic Phenology
Xylocopa virginica m
© Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 9
Xylocopa virginica m

Xylocopa virginica m
© Copyright Hadel Go 2014 · 9
Xylocopa virginica m
Xylocopa virginica virginica, Eastern Carpenter Bee
© Copyright John Ascher, 2006-2014 · 8
Xylocopa virginica virginica, Eastern Carpenter Bee

Xylocopa virginica FEM mm -. f
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Xylocopa virginica FEM mm -. f
Xylocopa virginica MALE comp
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Xylocopa virginica MALE comp

Xylocopa virginica, Eastern Carpenter Bee on Am. Germander
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 7
Xylocopa virginica, Eastern Carpenter Bee on Am. Germander
Xylocopa virginica, Eastern Carpenter Bee
© Copyright John Ascher, 2006-2014 · 7
Xylocopa virginica, Eastern Carpenter Bee

Xylocopa virginica
© Copyright Hadel Go 2014-2015 · 7
Xylocopa virginica
Xylocopa virginica, Eastern Carpenter Bee
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 6
Xylocopa virginica, Eastern Carpenter Bee

Xylocopa virginica
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Xylocopa virginica
Xylocopa virginica
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Xylocopa virginica

UGCA195858 01.female_front.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
female front
UGCA195858 02.female_front_top.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
female front top

UGCA195858 03.female_top.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
female top
UGCA195858 04.female_rear.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
female rear

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© Photographer/source
female rear tip
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© Photographer/source
female side

UGCA195858 07.female_rear_leg.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
female rear leg
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© Photographer/source
female wings

UGCA195859 01.male_top.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
male top
UGCA195859 02.male_rear.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
male rear

UGCA195859 03.male_rear_tip.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
male rear tip
UGCA195859 04.male_side.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
male side

UGCA195859 05.male_rear_leg.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
male rear leg
UGCA195859 06.male_wings.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
male wings

UGCA195859 07.male_front.320.jpg
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male front
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male front top
Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1962 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 152.

Species: Xylocopa virginica virginica

FEMALE—Length 19-23 mm., breadth of abdomen 9.5-10.5 mm.; entirely black, including antennae, legs, spurs and tegulae; wings rather deeply infuscated, veins brownish-piceous to black; cheeks broader than eyes; elypeus flat and slightly concave toward apical margin, median length about half the apical width, apical margin nearly straight; labrum much broader than long, with a robust, basal tubercle, median area elevated above the apical margin which is straight and with a conspicuous fringe of brownish setae; mandibles short, tapering apically, with a distinct, inner, subapical tooth, outer surface shallowly excavated at base; eyes subparallel; vertex broad, lateral ocelli much nearer each other than to its posterior margin, subequally distant from eyes and each other; face with a median carinate tubercle between antennae; basal segment of flagellum only slightly shorter than segments 2-4 combined; posterior margin of hind tibiae with a shallowly concave area that is delimited by a rather sharp carina, this angulate apically; punctures of face below and clypeus close and rather fine, quite deep and distinct, becoming somewhat more widely separated and sparse above, very sparse on vertex laterally and cheeks above, becoming relatively close and somewhat finer on cheeks below; scutum with a polished impunctate area medially, bordered with some very coarse, deep and rather sparse punctures which become very fine and close laterally and anteriorly; scutellum shining between deep, distinct, rather fine and close punctures, these somewhat separated along anterior margin; punctures of pleura rather fine but close and distinct; propodeum dull and tessellate, with scattered, sparse, shallow punctures; abdominal terga shining, punctures minute, widely scattered and sparse; tergum 6 with a median triangular pygidial area that is minutely and rather sparsely punctate, demarked by a series of short, robust, decumbent spines that converge apically, lateral areas of the tergum quite finely and closely punctate; pubescence of head short, erect, entirely blackish or fuscous, very thin on vertex, rather dense on sides of face and cheeks below; scutum, scutellum, pleura above and posterior face of propodeum densely yellowish or tawny pubescent, median area of scutum largely bare, the entire venter, pleura below, and legs black pubescent; basal abdominal tergum with a small amount of pale pubescence anteriorly. following terga practically bare, sterna with a small amount of rather short but erect black pubescence, becoming abundant and more elongate on the more apical segments, forming a rather dense apical fringe.

MALE—Length 17-21 mm., breadth of abdomen 7.5-9.5 mm.; black, with bluish or greenish reflections, the clypeus, lateral face marks, lower margin of supraclypeal area, and basal margin of labrum, bright yellow, these forming a nearly straight line just below level of antennae; wings rather lightly infuscated basally, becoming somewhat more deeply so apically, veins brownish-piceous to blackish; cheeks subequal to eyes in width; clypeus nearly flat, its median length about two-thirds the apical width; labrum much broader than its median length, subtruncate apically, the basal maculated area somewhat elevated; mandibles short and rather slender, with a conspicuous, superior, subapical angle; eyes rather strongly converging above, the lateral ocelli in practical contact with inner margin of eyes; lateral areas of vertex practically eliminated, surface entirely occupied by eyes; basal segment of flagellum slightly shorter than segments 2-4 combined; hind tibiae with a very low, submedian, carinate process on outer surface, punctures on lower half of face minute and scattered, rather sparse on clypeus, quite close on lateral maculated areas, slightly coarser and deeper above, quite sparse between eyes above, rather deep and well separated on cheeks; scutum greenish, with a rather limited, median, shining and impunctate area, with a few sparse coarse, punctures on each side, these becoming fine and close laterally and anteriorly, and to a lesser degree across posterior margin; scutellum greenish, shining, punctures quite fine and close, becoming narrowly sparse along anterior margin; pleura shining between fine and rather close punctures; propodeum dull and tessellate, punctures shallow, irregularly scattered and rather sparse; basal abdominal tergum more greenish, punctures rather deep. and distinct, well separated medially, becoming quite close laterally; punctures of the following terga somewhat finer and closer but deep and distinct, quite evenly distributed, but becoming somewhat closer toward lateral margins, somewhat more sparse apically on 4 and 5; pubescence of head erect and rather short, thin on face, rather copious between eyes and on cheeks and vertex, with intermixed pale and dark hairs; scutum, scutellum, lateral and upper faces of mesopleura, posterior face of propodeum and basal abdominal tergum quite densely covered with pale ochraceous pubescence, the thoracic venter and lateral areas of propodeum black or fuscous pubescent; legs in large part black pubescent. but front tibiae with some pale hairs in posterior fringe, the basitarsi with a quite prominant posterior fringe of pale hairs; pubescence of mid and hind legs entirely black; abdominal terga 2-7 entirely black pubescent, pubescence of the more basal of these very short, erect and quite dense but not at all obscuring the surface, that on 5-7 elongate and copious, forming a quite dense posterior fringe; sternum 7 transverse, linear in form and very slender, with a very shallow median emargination; sternum 8 broadly subtriangular, with slender lateral arms, apical margin nearly straight; genital armature as shown (fig. 127).

DISTRIBUTION — Kansas to the New England States, south to Texas and Florida, throughout the season.

FLOWER RECORDS — Abelia, Bidens, hex, Lespedeza, Malus, Opuntia, Prunus, Rhus, Rubus, Solidago, Stachys and Vaccinium. This has been recorded by Robertson (1929) on Brauneria, Cornus, Melilotus, Petalostemum and Verbena.

Species: Xylocopa virginica krombeini

This subspecies differs from the typical form chiefly in color of the pubescence. In the female abdominal terga 5 and 6 have a quite conspicuous tuft of white hairs at each extreme side, and the central bare area of the scutum has a marginal fringe of black pubescence. In males this marginal fringe on the scutum is more conspicuous than in the female, while the pale hairs of terga 5 and 6 may or may not be evident.

DISTRIBUTION — South Florida, throughout the year.

Scientific source:

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Adoxaceae  Viburnum @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Anacardiaceae  Rhus copallina @ UCMS_ENT (3)

Rhus glabra @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Rhus typhina @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Apocynaceae  Asclepias incarnata @ UCMS_ENT (3)
Asclepiadaceae  Asclepias incarnata @ I_SIF (1)
Asteraceae  Baccharis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Cichorium intybus @ MLSB__N16- (2)

Cirsium arvense @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Cirsium spp @ PN- (1)

Cirsium vulgare @ CUIC_ENT (4)

Coreopsis verticillata @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Eupatorium @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Garberia @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Helenium autumnale @ BBSL (1)

Helianthus sp @ BBSL (1)

Inula helenium @ CUIC_ENT (4)

Pluchea odorata @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Rudbeckia laciniata @ BBSL (5)

Rudbeckia @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Solidago canadensis @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Solidago erecta @ BBSL (2)

Solidago graminifolia @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Solidago rugosa @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Solidago sp @ BBSL (4); UCMS_ENT (1)

Solidago tenuifolia @ UCMS_ENT (3)

Solidago @ CUIC_ENT (8); I_JP (1)

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Taraxacum campylodes @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Vernonia gigantea @ BBSL (1)

Vernonia noveboracensis @ BBSL (3)

Vernonia sp @ BBSL (2)
Boraginaceae  Mertensia @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Brassicaceae  Barbarea vulgaris @ CUIC_ENT (3)

Cardamine concatenata @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Raphanus raphanistrum @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Campanulaceae  Lobelia puberula @ BBSL (1)
Caprifoliaceae  Abelia sp_x_grandiflora @ I_JP (3)

Lonicera sp @ UCMS_ENT (2)
Ericaceae  Kalmia latifolia @ BBSL (1)

Rhododendron mucronulatum @ CUIC_ENT (4)

Rhododendron @ AMNH_BEE (4); CUIC_ENT (1)

Vaccinium corymbosum @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Vaccinium stamineum @ CUIC_ENT (26)

Vaccinium @ CUIC_ENT (32)
Fabaceae  Cercis sp @ BBSL__BBSLID (1); BBSL (1)

Desmodium sp @ BBSL (1)

Lathyrus latifolius @ MLSB__N16- (3)

Medicago sativa @ CUIC_ENT (4)

Melilotus officinalis @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Tephrosia virginiana @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Trifolium pratense @ BBSL (1); MLSB__N16- (1)

Vicia cracca @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Vicia sp @ BBSL (2)

Vicia @ CUIC_ENT (3)

Wisteria sinensis @ AMNH_BEE (1)
J. rykken  1039 @ JRYB__SHEN (2)

1073 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)
K. kingsley  3527 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)

3607 @ JRYB__SHEN (1)
Lamiaceae  Blephilia ciliata @ PN- (1); MLSB__N16- (1)

Glechoma hederacea @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Origanum @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Pycnanthemum albescens @ BBSL__LSAM (1)

Pycnanthemum tenuifolium @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Pycnanthemum @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Salvia farinacea @ CUIC_ENT (12)
Lythraceae  Lythrum salicaria @ CUIC_ENT (3)
Malvaceae  Hibiscus sp @ MLSB__N16- (1)
Passifloraceae  Passiflora incarnata @ I_JP (2)
Plantaginaceae  Penstemon digitalis @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Veronica @ CUIC_ENT (2)
Plumbaginaceae  Limonium carolinianum @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Polygonaceae  Persicaria bungeana @ UCMS_ENT (3)

Polygonum cuspidatum @ UCMS_ENT (4)
Rosaceae  Cercocarpus sp @ BBSL (15)

Malus sp @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Malus @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Potentilla recta @ CUIC_ENT (3)

Prunus angustifolia @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Prunus maritima @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Prunus persica @ AMNH_BEE (3)

Prunus @ CUIC_ENT (1); UCMS_ENT (1)

Rosa carolina @ CUIC_ENT (2)

Rosa rugosa @ UCMS_ENT (4)

Rubus laciniatus @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Rubus @ CUIC_ENT (1); UCMS_ENT (4)

Sorbaria sorbifolia @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Salicaceae  Salix @ CUIC_ENT (5)
Scrophulariaceae  Buddleia sp @ UCMS_ENT (1)
_  20061003 @ I_SAM (1)

Caprifoliaceae @ MLSB__N16- (2)

M Spring @ PN- (6)

apple @ NLA (9)

blueberry @ NLA (21)

caneberry @ NLA (3)

cucurbit @ NLA (2)

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Updated: 2023-12-11 10:03:51 gmt
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