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Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus, 1758)
MOORISH IDOL
Heniochus cornutus Linnaeus, 1758; Zanclus canescens Linnaeus, 1758; Chaetodon canescens Linnaeus, 1758; Chaetodon cornutus Linnaeus, 1758

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Zanclidae   Zanclus

Zanclus cornutus
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Zanclus cornutus

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Overview
Main identification features Body compressed and very deep, 1-1.4 in standard length; dorsal rays VII, 40-43; anal rays III, 33-35; pectoral rays 19; third dorsal spine extremely long and filamentous, normally longer than standard length; snout elongate and strongly pointed; mouth small, the teeth slender and slightly incurved; adults with a small bony projection in front of each eye (larger in males).

White anteriorly, yellow posteriorly, with two broad black bars, one from the nape to thorax, the other on the rear of the body and the dorsal and anal fins; a black, orange-bordered saddle on the snout; tail fin black

Size: to 30 cm

Habitat: rocky and coral reefs.

Depth: 3-180 m.

Indo-Pacific; the southern Gulf of California to Peru and all the oceanic islands.




Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 180 m.
Depth Range Min: 3 m.
Diet: sponges/seasquirts/bryozoa; benthic microalgae.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=26; Southern limit=-6; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=32; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: All Pacific (West + Central + East); Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 30 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre , J. L. , Balart , E. F. and Arvizu-Martínez, J., 1995., Contribución al conocimiento del origen y distribución de la ictiofauna del Golfo de California, México., Hidrobiologica, 5:57-78.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Edgar, G.J. Banks, S., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M. and Martínez, C., 2004., Regional biogeography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago., Journal of Biogeography, 31:1107-1124.
  • Elorduy Garay , J. F. and Jiménez Gutiérrez, S. V., 2000., Metodologías para el estudio de los peces de arrecife. En Aburto Oropeza, O. y C. A. Sánchez Ortiz (Eds.). Recursos arrecifales del Golfo de California, estrategias de manejo para las especies marinas de ornato., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:72-82.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , and McGregor,., 1898., List of fishes collected at the Revillagigedo archipelago and neighboring islands., Rept. U.S. Fisheries Comm., 24:271-284.
  • Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • McCosker , J.E. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 1975., Fishes collected at Malpelo Island. In Graham, J.B. (ed.) The Biological Investigation of Malpelo Island, Colombia., Smithsonian Contrib. Zool., 176:91-93.
  • Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1990., Ictiofauna Indopacifica asociada a los corales de la Isla de Gorgona., Revista de Ciencias, 2:97-105.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Sánchez Ortíz , C. , Arreola Robles , J. L. , Aburto Oropeza , O. and Cortés Hernández, M., 1997., Peces de arrecife en la región de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:189-200.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Vega, A.J., Villareal, N., 2003., Peces asociados a arrecifes y manglares en el Parque Nacional Coiba., Tecnociencia, 5:65-76.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/e145e8ba-8329-4d8a-9c7c-a891e14459b8 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/e145e8ba-8329-4d8a-9c7c-a891e14459b8
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts

Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory

You are here:  Environment home » Biodiversity » ABRS » AFD » ANIMALIA (Kingdom) » CHORDATA (Phylum) » VERTEBRATA (Subphylum) » GNATHOSTOMATA (Higher Taxon) » PISCES (Higher Taxon) » ACTINOPTERYGII (Class) » EUTELEOSTEI (Subdivision) » ACANTHOPTERYGII (Superorder) » PERCIFORMES (Order) » ACANTHUROIDEI (Suborder) » ZANCLIDAE (Family) » Zanclus Cuvier, 1831 (Genus) » Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Species Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus, 1758)

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CAAB : 37437001 Taxon concept Zanclus_cornutus last modified 2013-10-09 10:07:52.756

Species Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Moorish Idol

 

Taxonomic Decision for Synonymy

 

Generic Combinations

 

Distribution

States

New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia


Extra Distribution Information

Point Quobba (24°30'S) to Cassini Island (13°56'S), Rowley Shoals (17°20'S) and Scott Reef (14°03'S), WA, Ashmore Reef, Timor Sea (12°15'S), Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and northern Great Barrier Reef QLD (12°00'S) to Sydney, NSW (33°53'S), also Ashmore Reef (10°24'S), Coringa-Herald Cays (16°58'S) and Lihou Reef (17°23'S), Coral Sea, Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs, Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island; tropical, Indo-Pacific.


IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)

IMCRA

Lord Howe Province (14), Northeast Province (18), Timor Province (2), Cape Province (20), Norfolk Island Province (21), Cocos (Keeling) Island Province (22), Christmas Island Province (23), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Northwest Transition (3), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)

Other Regions

Coral Sea Islands Territory, Territory of Ashmore & Cartier Islands

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Coral reef, inshore, marine.

 

General References

Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls. [222]

Allen, G.R., Steene, R.C. & Orchard, M. 2007. Fishes of Christmas Island . Christmas Island : Christmas Island Natural History Association 2 edn, 284 pp. [226]

Allen, G.R. & Erdmann, M.V. 2012. Reef fishes of the East Indies . Perth : Tropical Reef Research 3 vols, 1260 pp. [1016]

Allen, G.R. & Swainston, R. 1988. The Marine Fishes of North-Western Australia. A field guide for anglers and divers . Perth, WA : Western Australian Museum vi 201 pp., 70 pls. [138]

Kuiter, R.H. 1993. Coastal Fishes of South-eastern Australia . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 437 pp. [375]

Kuiter, R.H. & Debelius, H. 2001. Surgeonfishes, Rabbitfishes and Their Relatives. A comprehensive guide to Acanthuroidei . Chorleywood, U.K. : TMC Publishing 208 pp. [140]

McCulloch, A.R. 1929. A check-list of the fishes recorded from Australia. Part II. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 5 : 145–329 [275] (as Zanclus canescens )

Randall, J.E. 2001. Zanclidae, Acanthuridae. pp. 3651-3683 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes . Rome : FAO Vol. 6 pp. 3381-4218. [3651]

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 507 pp. figs. [434]

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1997. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 557 pp. figs. [434]

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89 (1): 11-127 [49] (1483, as Zanclus canescens )

 

Common Name References

Randall, J.E. 2001. Zanclidae, Acanthuridae. pp. 3651-3683 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes . Rome : FAO Vol. 6 pp. 3381-4218. [3651] ( Moorish Idol )

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Moorish Idol )

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
11-Jun-2013 11-Jun-2013 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)

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Last modified: Wednesday, 9 October 2013 10:07:52 AM AEDT

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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
   Top | See original

 
Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Zanclidae  
 Genus Zanclus  
  Zanclus cornutus    (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Chaetodon canescens Chaetodon cornutus Zanclus canescens Zanclus cornotus   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.6(FAO, 2001)
Character: Dorsal-fin rays VI-VII, 39-43; anal-fin rays III, 31-37; pectoral-fin rays 18-19. Strongly compressed discoid body. Tubular snout with a small mouth containing numerous elongate bristle-like teeth. Dorsal spines elongated into a whip-like filament. 
Habitat: Inhabits turbid inner lagoons, reef flats, and clear seaward rocky and coral reefs. Generally encountered in small groups of 2 or 3 individuals. Feeds on small encrusting animals. Popular aquarium fish but rarely survives in tanks. 
Distribution: Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Rapa and Ducie Islands, north to southern Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, south to the Lord Howe Island; Eastern Pacific: southern Gulf of California to Peru Taiwan: South,Hsiaoliuchiu, Penghu, Lanyu, Lyudao, North, East, Nort 
Utility: Commercial fishery and aquarium species.  
Name Code: 382693
  IUCN Red List:LC      
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
User Response:   upload Comments    upload Photo
 
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Zanclus+cornutus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Zanclus+cornutus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

CalPhotos    
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Number of matches : 11
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Zanclus cornutus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Zanclus cornutus
Zanclus cornutus
Moorish Idol
ID: 0000 0000 1003 0406 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Zanclus cornutus
Zanclus cornutus
Moorish Idol
(shown with Chromis iomelas )
ID: 0000 0000 1003 0408 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Zanclus cornutus
Zanclus cornutus
Moorish Idol
ID: 0000 0000 0903 0441 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Zanclus cornutus
Zanclus cornutus
Moorish Idol
ID: 0091 3183 0935 0113 [detail]
John H. Tashjian
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Zanclus cornutus
Zanclus cornutus
ID: 4444 4444 1106 0914 [detail]
© 2006 Moorea Biocode

Zanclus cornutus
Zanclus cornutus
Moorish Idol
ID: 0000 0000 1206 0449 [detail]
© 2006 Dr. Vincent B. Hargreaves

Zanclus cornutus
Zanclus cornutus
Moorish Idol
ID: 6666 6666 0914 0047 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2014 California Academy of Sciences

Zanclus cornutus
Zanclus cornutus
Moorish Idol
ID: 6666 6666 0914 0048 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2014 California Academy of Sciences

Zanclus cornutus
Zanclus cornutus
Moorish Idol
ID: 6666 6666 0914 0049 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2014 California Academy of Sciences

Zanclus cornutus
Zanclus cornutus
Moorish Idol
ID: 6666 6666 0118 0113 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2018 California Academy of Sciences

Zanclus cornutus
Zanclus cornutus
Moorish Idol
ID: 6666 6666 0118 0114 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2018 California Academy of Sciences

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Zanclus&speciesname=cornutus ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Zanclus-cornutus.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Zanclus cornutus   (Linnaeus, 1758)

Moorish idol Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Year 2100
Reviewed map
Zanclus cornutus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Zanclus cornutus (Moorish idol) Zanclus cornutus
Picture by Field, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Zanclidae (Moorish idol)
Etymology: Zanclus: Greek, za = an augmentative particle + Greek, agklino = to be on one´s back (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 182 m (Ref. 9710 ), usually 5 - 182 m (Ref. 27115 ).   Subtropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115 ); 32°N - 37°S, 21°E - 70°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Rapa and Ducie islands, north to southern Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, south to the Lord Howe Island. Eastern Pacific: southern Gulf of California to Peru (Ref. 9267 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6113 ); common length : 21.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 5755 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 6 - 7; Dorsal soft rays (total): 39-43; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 31 - 37. Strongly compressed discoid body. Tubular snout with a small mouth containing numerous elongate bristle-like teeth. Dorsal spines elongated into a whip-like filament.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit turbid inner lagoons, reef flats, and clear seaward rocky and coral reefs (Ref. 1602 , 48637 ). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302 ). Generally encountered in small groups of 2 or 3 individuals (Ref. 9267 ). Adults occur singly, in pairs and occasionally are seen in large schools (Ref. 48637 ). Feed on small encrusting animals (Ref. 6113 ). Size of metamorphosis from postlarva to juvenile is 7.5 cm (Ref. 9267 ). The long pelagic larval stage is the reason for the wide distribution and strong colouration that shows no geographical variation (Ref. 48637 ). Popular aquarium fish but rarely survives in tanks (Ref. 1602 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Myers, R.F. , 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Least Concern (LC)  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
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Ecotoxicology
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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 20 - 29, mean 27.7 (based on 4016 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 1.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.00668 - 0.04524), b=3.06 (2.84 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  2.5   ±0.00 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  . Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (12 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Unknown .

Entered by Binohlan, Crispina B. Modified by Ortañez, Auda Kareen Fish Forum
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