Hirundichthys speculiger (Valenciennes, 1847)
Black-finned Flying-fish; Mirror-finned Flying-fish; Exocoetus speculiger Valenciennes, 1847
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Exocoetidae   Hirundichthys

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Hirundichthys speculiger
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Hirundichthys speculiger

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Hirundichthys speculiger
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Hirundichthys speculiger

Main identification features
  • dorsal fin and a: clear
  • pectoral: black + clear bar and border
  • pelvic: grey, pale front border
Pectoral reaching past anal base, 1st ray unbranched, 15-18 branched rays; no branch of lateral line to origin of pectoral; top jaw not protrusible; pelvic origin nearer anal origin than pectoral base, reaching past anal origin; anal origin before 3rd dorsal ray; sides of roof of mouth with teeth; dorsal 10-12 rays; anal 11-13 rays; 30-34 scales before dorsal fin juveniles without barbels under chin.

Body iridescent dark blue above, silvery below; pectoral black, narrow clear margin, broad transverse clear bar from base to middle of fin; dorsal and anal clear; pelvics grey with clear front border.

Size: 31 cm.

Habitat: oceanic pelagic.

Depth: surface, 0-20 m.

Circumtropical; the offshore islands and the mouth of the Gulf of California to Ecuador.

Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 20 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: zooplankton; pelagic fish larvae; pelagic fish eggs.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=24; Southern limit=-6; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=30; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Offshore; Offshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 31 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Surface; Water column only;

Scientific source:

Links to other sites

  • Barez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Len:153-170.
  • Cuvier , G. and Valenciennes, A., 1847., Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome dix-neuvieme. Suite du livre dix-neuvieme. Brochets ou Lucioides. Livre vingtieme. De quelques familles de Malacopterygiens, intermediaires entre les Brochets et les Clupes., Histoire Naturelle Des Poissons, 19:i-xix + 1-544 + 6pp.
  • Dasilao , J. C., Jr. , Sasaki , K. and Okamura, )., 1997., The Hemiramphid, Oxyporhamphus, is a flyingfish (Exocoetidae)., Ichthyological Research, 44:101-107.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versin 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo . Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservacin Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Barez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, Mxico., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.


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You have requested an unaccepted/invalid name entry, the corresponding accepted/valid name is presented here as the result.
Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Beloniformes  
 Family Exocoetidae  
 Genus Hirundichthys  
  Hirundichthys speculiger    (Valenciennes, 1847) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Cypselurus hyperistius Cypselurus speculiger Exocoetus hyperistius Exocoetus nigripennis Exocoetus nigripinnis Exocoetus polleni Hirundichthys speculiger praecox   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999); Fishes of Japan(Nakabo, 2002)
Character: Body elongate, broadly cylindrical. Head short. Snout blunt. Mouth small. Both jaws of equal length, or lower jaw a little longer than upper jaw; juveniles without barbels. Gill rakers well developed. Dorsal fin with 10-12 soft rays; Origin of anal fin slightly before, under or not more than 2 rays behind origin of dorsal fin, and with 11-13 soft rays; pectoral fins high on sides, strikingly long, always extending beyond posterior end of anal fin, only the first ray unbranched; pelvic fin long, extending beyond of anal fin when depressed; caudal fin deeply forked, its lower lobe longer than the upper. Scales large, cycloid, easily shed; predorsal scales 30-34; lateral line without branch at throrax, with 50-55 scales. Body deep blue above, pale below; dorsal fin without black region; pectoral fin uniformly black except transparent region at middle margin; pelvic fin with dark area; caudal fin transparent.  
Habitat: Found in oceanic surface waters. Spawns throughout the year in warm waters. 
Distribution: Widespread in tropical zone of all oceans, probably absent in the inland seas of Southeast Asia. It is found in eastern and southern Taiwanese waters. 
Utility: No importance to fisheries. Sometimes marketed fresh or dried. 
Name Code: 380883
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Hirundichthys speculiger   (Valenciennes, 1847)

Mirrorwing flyingfish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes (Needle fishes) > Exocoetidae (Flyingfishes)
Etymology: Hirundichthys: latin, hirundo = swift; 1300 + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - ? m.   Tropical; 42°N - 36°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 93339 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumglobal: all oceans preferably open ocean waters. Atlantic: northward from 37°N in the western part of the ocean to 25° N in the eastern part and southward from 30° S in the western part to 8° S in the eastern part; somewhat broader in the Eastern Atlantic. It is quite rare in the Caribbean (except for the eastern part) and in the Gulf of Mexico. Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal in the north to the southern end of Africa and the western coast of Australia in the south; not found in the Red Sea, Aden, Oman and the Persian Gulfs, as well as in the easternmost part of the Indian Ocean in the waters between the southern Indonesian islands and the northern coast of Australia. Juveniles are distributed throughout the range of the species except in the most southwestern areas from the Mozambique Channel to the False Bay and in the waters off the west coast of Australia; juveniles were found in all seasons. Pacific Ocean: northward from the northwestern tip of the Honshu Island in the west to 20° N in the east, and southward from the east coast of Australia to the waters of Ecuador and Peru. Absent in the East China, Yellow and Japan Seas, quite rare in the South China Sea, none in the inner Indonesian seas.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 93339 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-12; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 11 - 13. Body dark, iridescent blue above, silvery white below; dorsal and caudal fins greyish, other fins hyaline (Ref. 2797 ). Juveniles elongate, paired fins mottled (Ref. 2797 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in oceanic surface waters (Ref. 9839 ). Caught in surface waters over the depths 80-10,400 meters, usually 2000 to 6000 m (mean 4423 m) (Ref. 93339 ). Spawns throughout the year in warm waters (Ref. 6523 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Parin, Nikolay V. | Collaborators

Shakhovskoy, I.B. and N.V. Parin , 2013. A review of flying fishes of the subgenus Hirundichthys (genus Hirundichthys , Exocoetidae). 1. Oceanic species: H. speculiger, H. indicus sp. nova. J. Ichthyol. 53(2):117-145. (Ref. 93339 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Least Concern (LC)  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

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Food consumption
Common names
Egg development
Larval dynamics
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Gill area


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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 1.2 - 2.9, mean 1.5 (based on 26666 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00156 - 0.01115), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.0   ±0.08 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (17 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

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