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Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron &. Lesueur, 1821)
CROCODILE LONGTOM
Choram Long-tom; Crocodile Long-tom; Crocodilian Longtom; Giant Long-tom; Hound Needlefish; Belone crocodila Péron and Lesueur, 1821; Houndfish; Mexican needlefish

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Belonidae   Tylosurus

Tylosurus crocodilus fodiator
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Tylosurus crocodilus fodiator

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Tylosurus crocodilus fodiator
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Tylosurus crocodilus fodiator
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Overview
Main identification features
  • robust;beak short
  • pectoral long
  • anal fin has 17-18 rays
Relatively robust; beak not very elongate; dorsal rays 18-22 (usually 20); anal rays 17-18 (usually 18); front lobes of dorsal + anal fin relatively high; pectoral rays 14 or 15; pectoral + pelvic fins relatively long; 320-361 scales before dorsal fin; lower lobe of tail fin much longer than upper lobe; prominent raised black keel on side of tail base.

Dark bluish green above, silvery on sides.

Size: to 159 cm.

Habitat: inshore, pelagic surface.

Depth: 0-10 m?.

Circumtropical, with a subspecies endemic to our region: Baja, the Gulf of California to Ecuador, Galapagos, Cocos and Malpelo.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 10 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish; Pelagic crustacea; bony fishes.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=32; Southern limit=-3; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=35; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Benthic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 159 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); TEP endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Brackish.
Water Column Position: Surface; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Acero, A. and Franke, R., 2001., Peces del parque nacional natural Gorgona. En: Barrios, L. M. y M. Lopéz-Victoria (Eds.). Gorgona marina: Contribución al conocimiento de una isla única., INVEMAR, Serie Publicaciones Especiales No. 7:123-131.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Breder, C.M. Jr., 1928., Scientific results of the second oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1926. Nematognathi, Apodes, Isospondyli, Synentognathi, and Thoracostraci from Panama to Lower California with a generic analysis of the Exocoetidae., Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ., 2(2):1-25.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Dasilao , J. C., Jr. , Sasaki , K. and Okamura, )., 1997., The Hemiramphid, Oxyporhamphus, is a flyingfish (Exocoetidae)., Ichthyological Research, 44:101-107.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Franke , R. and Acero P., A., 1992., Peces óseos comerciales del Parque Gorgona, Pacífico Colombiano (Osteichthyes: Elopidae, Chanidae, Exocoetidae, Belonidae y Scombridae)., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 40:117-124.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Gilbert, C.H., 1882., Description of five new species of fishes from Mazatlan, Mexico., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 4:458-463.
  • Jordan, D.S., 1895., The fishes of Sinaloa., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2), 5:377-514.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Mees, G. F., 1962., A preliminary revision of the Belonidae., Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden), 54:1-96.
  • Osburn , R. C. and Nichols, J. T., 1916., Shore Fishes Collected by the 'Albatross' Expedition in Lower California with Descriptions of New Species., Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 35:139-181.
  • Phillips, P. C., 1981., Annotated Checklist of Fishes at Jiquilisco Bay, El Salvador., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 29:45-58.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Vega, A.J., Villareal, N., 2003., Peces asociados a arrecifes y manglares en el Parque Nacional Coiba., Tecnociencia, 5:65-76.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/e71e5fe3-51e9-4568-bce2-da63182bf4fd/ ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/e71e5fe3-51e9-4568-bce2-da63182bf4fd/
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Beloniformes  
 Family Belonidae  
 Genus Tylosurus  
  Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus  
   crocodilus  (Péron & Lesueur, 1821) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Belona crocodila Belone annulata Belone choram Belone coromandelica Belone crassa Belone crocodila Belone crocodilus Belone cylindrica Belone gerania Belone gigantea Belone koseirensis details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999); Fish of Japan(Nakabo, 2002)
Character: Body elongate, rounded in cross-section. Upper and lower jaws greatly elongate and studded with sharp teeth jaw teeth point anteriorly in juveniles; gill rakers absent. Anterior part of dorsal and anal fins with relatively high lobes; dorsal-fin rays 21 to 25; anal-fin rays 19 to 22; pectoral and pelvic fins long; pectoral-fin rays 13 to 15; a distinct black lateral keel on caudal peduncle; caudal fin deeply forked, lower lobe much longer than upper. Predorsal scales numerous and tiny, 271 to 340. Body dark bluish green above, silvery below; a dark blue stripe along sides; juveniles with elevated black lobe in posterior part of dorsal fin which is lost with growth; scales and bones green. 
Habitat: A pelagic species found over lagoon and seaward reefs. Solitary or in small groups. Feeds on fishes. Feared by fishers because they can cause puncture wounds with their sharp snouts when jumping out of the water, e.g. when alarmed or attracted to lights a 
Distribution: Widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific from Red Sea and South Africa to French Polynesia, north to Japan, south to New South Wales, Australia. It is common in waters around Taiwan. 
Utility: Although sold fresh and considered a good food fish, its market is limited due to the green-colored flesh. 
Name Code: 380865
  IUCN Red List:LC      
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
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2017-08-14 U/L
 
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Tylosurus+crocodilus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Tylosurus+crocodilus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal