Main identification features
Oblong compressed; forehead profile nearly straight; mouth large; lips very thick in large fish; jaws with inner bands of small, slender teeth, and outer row of small canines; teeth at front and center of roof of mouth; a small supramaxilla bone above main bone (maxilla) of top jaw; preopercle serrated, with 2-3 large forward pointing spines on its lower edge; operculum with 3 strong spines; 10-12 lower rakers, 2-3 upper; dorsal fin continuous, XI, 3rd to 5th spines longest, 17 soft rays, rear edge rounded; anal fin III, 2nd spine largest, 8 rays, with rounded margin; tail with straight edge and rounded corners, with 15 branched rays; 19 pectoral rays, most branched; pelvics inserted behind base of pectoral, reaching nearly to anal origin in small fish; scales very rough, small, about 145-150 in lateral series; lateral line complete, tubes with branches; lateral line scales distinct, about equal sized to neighboring scales.
- opercle: 3 spines, dark bar between top 2
- opercle - 2 oblique stripes
- lower edge preopercle - spines point forward
Mottled brown; dorsal, tail, anal and pelvic fins dark brown; pectorals pinkish; a dark stripe from snout through eye; a dark oblique bar from eye to lower corner of operculum, another similar bar from corner of mouth to lower edge of operculum; a dark oblique blotch with a white rear margin on upper edge of operculum between uppermost two spines.
Apparently reaches ~80cm.
Depth: 10-50 m.
Found on shallow rocky reefs.
Southern Ecuador to southern Chile.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 50 m.
Depth Range Min: 10 m.
Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); bony fishes.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=-3; Southern limit=-23; Western limit=-82; Eastern limit=-70; Latitudinal range=20; Longitudinal range=12.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: TEP non-endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore Only; Inshore.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 80 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent only; Continent; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Peruvian province, primarily; All species.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;
Links to other sites|
- Béarez , P. and Jiménez, P., 2002., New records of serranids (Teleostei, Perciformes) from the continental shelf of Ecuador with a key to the species, and comments on ENSO-associated fish dispersal., Cybium, 2002.
- Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
- Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
- Tschudi, J. J. von., 1846., Ichthyologie. Pp. ii-xxx + 1-35, Pls. 1-6. In: Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana., Scheitlin & Zollikofer:1-693.
I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.
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