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Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle
TREE OF HEAVEN
Tree-of-Heaven; Toxicodendron altissimum Mill; Ailanthus glandulosa Desf; Ailanthus rhodoptera FMuell; Ailantus rhodoptera orth var FMuell; Chinese Sumac; Stink Sumac; Paradise-Tree; Copal-Tree

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Simaroubaceae   Ailanthus

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Ailanthus altissima, Tree-of-Heaven fruit
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Ailanthus altissima, Tree-of-Heaven fruit
Ailanthus altissima, Tree-of-Heaven
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 7
Ailanthus altissima, Tree-of-Heaven

Ailanthus altissima, Tree-of-Heaven
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 7
Ailanthus altissima, Tree-of-Heaven
Ailanthus altissima
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ailanthus altissima

Ailanthus altissima
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ailanthus altissima

Ailanthus altissima
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ailanthus altissima

Ailanthus altissima
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ailanthus altissima

Ailanthus altissima
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ailanthus altissima

Ailanthus altissima
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Ailanthus altissima

Ailanthus altissima, _fruit_close_up.JP80279_45.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
Ailanthus altissima, fruit close up
JP80279_45
Ailanthus altissima, _leaves.JP80279_46.320.jpg
© Photographer/source
Ailanthus altissima, leaves
JP80279_46

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Agaricaceae  Phoma glandulosae @ BPI (1)
Arthoniaceae  Arthonia quintaria @ I_GBP (2)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Botryosphaeria ribis @ BPI (1)
Diaporthaceae  Phomopsis @ BPI (1)
Erysiphaceae  Phyllactinia ailanthi @ BPI (1)

Phyllactinia corylea @ BPI (4)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Cercospora glandulosa @ BPI (2)
Nitschkiaceae  Fracchiaea heterogenea @ BPI (1)
Pseudococcidae  Pseudococcus comstocki @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Pseudococcus viburni @ CSCA_TCN (1)
Schizophyllaceae  Schizophyllum commune @ BPI (1)
_  Lycorma delicatula @ UDCC_TCN (6)

Patouillardiella @ BPI (1)

Septotrullula bacilligera @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
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Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle

Tree of Heaven

Ailanthus altissimus plant

Family - Simaroubaceae

Habit - Small to medium sized tree, to 20 m, incompletely dioecious, colonial from root suckers.

Stems - Trunks 1 or few, stout, the bark light grayish brown, initially relatively smooth, eventually developing thin, pale grooves and thin, darker ridges. Twigs stout, tan to reddish brown with numerous, slender, pale lenticels and large, prominent, more or less kidney-shaped leaf scars, the winter buds axillary (sometimes appearing asymmetrically terminal), depressed-globose, with several broadly rounded scales, densely short-hairy.

Leaves - Leaves 40-100 cm long, relatively short-petiolate. Leaf blades pinnately compound with 11-41 leaflets, these opposite, lanceolate, the lateral ones often somewhat curved toward the leaf tip, rounded to shallowly cordate and usually somewhat asymmetrical at the base, sharply pointed, the margins entire or with 1-3 pairs of blunt teeth toward the base, the surfaces short-hairy and also with scattered, minute glands, sometimes becoming nearly glabrous with age, the upper surface dark green, the undersurface pale or lighter green. One or more small, rounded projections often present on leaf surface near base. Crushed leaves with unpleasant stench.

Inflorescence - Terminal, large, diffusely branched panicles, lacking bracts, the numerous, individually stalked flowers solitary or in small clusters, each cluster subtended by a pair of minute, linear, reddish bracts that are shed before the flowers open.

Ailanthus altissimus inflorescence Staminate inflorescence.

Flowers - Mostly imperfect, but pistillate flowers sometimes appearing perfect due to presence of staminodes. Sepals 5, sometimes fused at base, triangular, spreading. Petals 5, to 4 mm long, alternating with sepals, somewhat concave, greenish, densely tomentose. Staminate flowers - Fetid. Stamens 10, erect to spreading. Filaments densely pubescent (at least in the basal 1/2), white, 2.5 mm long. Anthers yellow, 1.2 mm long. Pistillate flowers usually with 3-5 staminodes. Nectar disc present, irregularly lobed, dark purple to purplish brown. Ovary of 2-5 carpels, 2-5-locular. Style 1 per flower, with twisted, longitudinal lines equal to the carpel number, the stigma capitate and deeply 2-5-lobed.

Ailanthus altissimus flowers

Ailanthus altissimus calyx Calyx.

Fruits - Schizocarps, appearing as small clusters of 2-5 samaras, these sessile, 3.0-5.5 cm long, 7-13 mm wide, narrowly oblong-elliptic, often somewhat spirally twisted toward the tip, usually strongly dark reddish-tinged at maturity, but becoming tan before dispersal. Seed 1 per samara, positioned near its midpoint, 5-8 mm long, ovate, strongly flattened, the seed coat fused to the samara wall.

Ailanthus altissimus fruits Fruits.

Flowering - May - June.

Habitat - Waste ground, along streams, base of bluffs, thickets, roadsides, railroads, commonly cultivated.

Origin - Native to Asia.

Other info. - This common tree has been collected from scattered locations in Missouri but is probably far more common than collections indicate. It has been widely cultivated and is especially prevalent around urban areas. It grows rapidly and is resistant to disease and tolerant of air pollution. Although it mainly colonizes disturbed areas, in Missouri it has been known to strongly invade forest margins. Once established it is difficult to control. It should not be willingly spread in the wild. Trees can be staminate, pistillate, or perfect. The staminate flowers and crushed foliage emit a disagreeable odor.

A. altissima has been used medicinally in the past. A tea made from the bark is used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and tapeworms. Large doses of the tea, however, may be toxic. The tree has also been shown to have antimalarial properties. In China, some cases of hay fever have been attributed to the plant.

The wood of this species can be mixed with other hardwoods for pulp in the paper-making process. Sap from the wood has been known to cause rashes in some people. Absorption of the sap through wounds may cause myocarditis.

Photographs taken at the Kansas City Zoo, 5-18-00 (DETenaglia); also along the Katy Trail in St. Charles County, 3-5-2012 (SRTurner).


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You have requested an unaccepted/invalid name entry, the corresponding accepted/valid name is presented here as the result.
 
Kingdom Plantae  
 Phylum Tracheophyta  
 Class Magnoliopsida  
 Order Sapindales  
 Family Simaroubaceae  
 Genus Ailanthus  
  Ailanthus altissima  
   var.  tanakae  (Hayata) Kaneh. & Sasaki 
Provider: Cheng-Tao Lin 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Ailanthus altissima tanakai   details
Citation:
Name Code: 433908
   Endemic     
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User Response:   upload Comments    upload Photo
 
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=AIAL ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=AIAL
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=AIAL ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=AIAL
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=AIAL ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=AIAL
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle
tree of heaven

Image of Ailanthus altissima

General Information
Symbol: AIAL
Group: Dicot
Family: Simaroubaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Tree
Native Status : CAN   I
HI   I
L48   I
Characteristics
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Ailanthus thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Patrick J. Alexander. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, DC, Washington. 1960. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, AL, Auburn Univeristy Campus, Library. 1983. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, DC, Washington, 616 6th St. N.W. 1934. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, VA, Bedford Co. July 16, 2011. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. June 27, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. June 27, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. June 27, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 12, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 12, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 12, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 12, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 12, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 12, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. August 21, 2011. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 23, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 23, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 23, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 23, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 23, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 23, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 23, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 23, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 23, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 23, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 23, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 23, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 24, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 24, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 446. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
AIGL Ailanthus glandulosa Desf.
TOAL4 Toxicodendron altissimum Mill.

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Rosidae
Order Sapindales
Family Simaroubaceae – Quassia family
Genus Ailanthus Desf. – ailanthus
Species Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle – tree of heaven

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Noxious Weed Information
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all Federal and State Noxious Weeds .
Connecticut tree of heaven Invasive, banned
Massachusetts tree of heaven Prohibited
New Hampshire tree of heaven Prohibited invasive Species
Vermont tree-of-heaven Class B noxious weed
U.S. Weed Information
Ailanthus altissima tree-of-heaven This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S.
STATE Assorted authors. State noxious weed lists for 46 states . State agriculture or natural resource departments.
Cal-IPC California Invasive Plant Council. 2006. California Invasive Plant Inventory. Cal-IPC Publication 2006-02 (1 February 2007). California Invasive Plant Council. Berkeley, California.
SEEPPC Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1996. Invasive exotic pest plants in Tennessee (19 October 1999). Research Committee of the Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council. Tennessee.
WI Hoffman, R.and K. Kearns (eds.). 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants . Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources. Madison, Wisconsin.

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Top Level Regions
Hawaii FACU
North America
Arid West FACU
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FACU
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont FACU
Great Plains FACU
Midwest FACU
Northcentral & Northeast UPL
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FACU

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (AIAL)
CalPhotos (AIAL)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (AIAL)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (AIGL)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (AIAL)
Kemper Center for Home Gardening (AIAL)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (AIAL)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (AIAL)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (AIAL)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (AIAL)
Related Websites
CT-USDA NRCS Invasive Species Identification Sheets (AIAL)
GU-Plant Threats to Pacific Ecosystems (AIAL)
MA-Massachusetts Non-Native Plant Introductions (AIAL)
OH-Invasive Plants of Ohio (AIAL)
Oregon State University Horticultural Plant Materials: images and text (AIAL)
Pennsylvania Department of Natural Resources: abstract & image (AIAL)
The Nature Conservancy: Wildland Weeds Management & Research Program (AIAL)
USDA Forest Service-Silvics of North America (AIAL)
University of Hawaii Botany Department: Alien Plants of Hawaii (AIAL)
University of Hawaii: G.D. Carr image (AIAL)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Ailanthus+altissima&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Ailanthus+altissima&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 68
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Ailanthus altissima%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Tree-of-heaven
ID: 8076 3101 3985 0075 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus
ID: 5315 2021 1568 0057 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Tree-of-heaven
ID: 5315 2021 1568 0055 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Copal Tree
ID: 2222 0803 0003 0001 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus
ID: 5315 2021 1568 0056 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Tree-of-heaven
ID: 8076 3101 3986 0099 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus
ID: 0000 0000 0705 0180 [detail]
© 2005 George W. Hartwell

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus
ID: 0000 0000 0705 0181 [detail]
© 2005 George W. Hartwell

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Tree of Heaven
ID: 0000 0000 0506 2198 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Tree of Heaven
ID: 0000 0000 0506 2199 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Tree of Heaven
ID: 0000 0000 0506 2200 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
ID: 0000 0000 0507 0871 [detail]
© 2007 Luigi Rignanese

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
ID: 0000 0000 0507 0872 [detail]
© 2007 Luigi Rignanese

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
ID: 0000 0000 0507 1360 [detail]
© 2007 Luigi Rignanese

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
ID: 0000 0000 0507 1363 [detail]
© 2007 Luigi Rignanese

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
ID: 0000 0000 0707 0669 [detail]
© 2007 Luigi Rignanese

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
ID: 0000 0000 0707 0675 [detail]
© 2007 Luigi Rignanese

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
ID: 0000 0000 0707 0680 [detail]
© 2007 Luigi Rignanese

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Tree of Heaven
ID: 0000 0000 0809 1421 [detail]
© 2009 Neal Kramer

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Tree of Heaven
ID: 0000 0000 0809 1420 [detail]
© 2009 Neal Kramer

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Tree of Heaven
ID: 0000 0000 0809 1419 [detail]
© 2009 Neal Kramer

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus
ID: 0000 0000 0709 1390 [detail]
© 2009 Thomas Stoughton

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus
ID: 0000 0000 0709 1391 [detail]
© 2009 Thomas Stoughton

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima
Tree of Heaven
ID: 0000 0000 1009 1122 [detail]
© 2009 Thomas Stoughton

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