Amanita phalloides (Fr. :Fr.) Link
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Amanita phalloides, Deathcap
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 9
Amanita phalloides, Deathcap

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Amanita phalloides, Deathcap
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Amanita phalloides, Deathcap

Amanita phalloides
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Amanita phalloides

Amanita phalloides
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Amanita phalloides

Amanita phalloides
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Amanita phalloides

Amanita phalloides
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Amanita phalloides
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California Fungi—Amanita phalloides Amanita phalloides
(Photo: © Michael Wood)

Amanita phalloides (Fr.:Fr.) Link.
Handb. Erkenn. nutzb. hänfigst. ewächse 3: 272. 1833.

Common Name: death cap

  • Pileus

    Cap 3.5-15 cm broad, convex, expanding to nearly plane, at maturity the disc sometimes slightly raised or depressed; margin entire, seldom striate, or if so, obscurely so; surface subviscid when moist, smooth, occasionally with a faint, appressed, white universal veil patch; color: olive, olive-brown, to yellowish-brown, rarely white, typically with innate, darker streaks, the margin paler, fading overall to dull tan in age; flesh soft, white, moderately thick at the disc, unchanging, at times yellowish-brown just below the cuticle; odor slightly pungent; taste mild.

  • Lamellae

    Gills free, close, moderately broad, white becoming cream, staining pink to vinaceous with concentrated sulfuric acid.

  • Stipe

    Stipe 4-18 cm long, 1-3 cm thick, equal to tapering to an enlarged, sometimes bulbous base, usually solid but the apex sometimes stuffed; surface finely striate at the apex, otherwise smooth or with scattered, flattened small scales, white to pale yellowish; flesh white, firm, unchanging; partial veil membranous, cream-colored to tinged like the cap, the upper surface striate, lower surface slightly pubescent, forming a pendulous, superior annulus; volva membranous, thin, white, sac-like, usually erect from the stipe.

  • Spores

    Spores 7-12 x 6-10 µm, ovoid to elliptical, amyloid; spore print white.

  • Habitat

    Solitary, scattered, to gregarious under coast liveoak ( Quercus agrifolia ), occasionally with other oaks and ornamental hardwoods; fruiting sporadically during the summer months in watered areas or from fog drip along the coast; common from early fall to mid-winter.

  • Edibility

    Deadly!!! Deadly poisonous! A. phalloides contains both phallotoxins and amanitins. It is the amanitins that are responsible for the poisonings in humans. Amanitins are cyclic octapeptides that stop protein synthesis in the cells they encounter. All human organs are affected, but damage to the liver is most severe and liver failure is primarily responsible for the death of A. phalloides victims. Symptoms usually appear 8-12 hours after ingestion. Death occurs in 7-10 days in 10-15% of patients.

  • Comments

    A large, handsome mushroom, the death cap is often very abundant under oaks in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially in warm, wet years. It is also becoming increasingly abundant in other areas of California where oaks are common. Because of its toxicity, it should be one of the first mushrooms learned. Fortunately, Amanita phalloides is distinctive and with experience, easily identified. Important field characters are the smooth, yellowish-green to yellowish-brown cap, sometimes with a thin, appressed white universal veil patch, usually non-striate cap margin, free, cream-colored gills, normally solid, not hollow stipe, pendulous annulus, and thin, white, membranous, sac-like volva. The Death Cap is found widely in coastal areas as well as inland at low elevations. A rare, white form of this mushroom, var. alba resembling the Death Angel of the Eastern U.S ( Amanita bisporigera ), also occurs in the California. Another lethal Amanita found locally is Amanita ocreata . Cream-colored, and similar in appearance to the Death Cap, it fruits under coast liveoak ( Quercus agrifolia ) during the spring.

  • References

    Ammirati, J.F., Thiers, H.D. & Horgen, P.A. (1977). Amatoxin-containing mushrooms: Amanita ocreata and A. phalloides in California. Mycologia 69: 1095-1108.
    Benjamin, D.R. (1995). Mushrooms: Poisons and Panaceas. W. H. Freeman: New York, NY. 422 p.
    Breitenbach, J. & Kränzlin, F. (1995). Fungi of Switzerland. Volume 4: Agarics (2nd Part). Entolomataceae, Pluteaceae, Amanitaceae, Agaricaceae, Coprinaceae, Strophariaceae. Verlag Mykologia: Luzern, Switzerland. 368 p.
    Desjardin, D.E., Wood, M.G. & Stevens, F.A. (2015). California Mushrooms: The Comprehensive Identification Guide. Timber Press: Portland, OR. 560 p.
    Duffy, T.J. (2008). Toxic Fungi of Western North America. MykoWeb .
    Jenkins, David T. (1986). Amanita of North America. Mad River Press: Eureka, CA. 197 p.
    Pringle, A. & Vellinga, E.C. (2006). Last chance to know? Using literature to explore the biogeography and invasion biology of the death cap mushroom Amanita phalloides (Vaill. ex Fr. :Fr.) Link. Biological Invasions 6: 1131-1144.
    Spoerke, D.G. & Rumack, B.H. (1994). Handbook of Mushroom Poisoning: Diagnosis and Treatment. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. 456 p.
    Thiers, Harry D. (1982). The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California. 1. Amanitaceae. Mad River Press: Eureka, CA. 53 p.

  • Other Descriptions and Photos Main Photo
    • Wikipedia: Amanita phalloides (D & CP)
    • Harvard University Herbaria: Amanita phalloides (D & CP)
    • American Mushrooms: Amanita phalloides (D & CP)
    • Robert Rich: Amanita phalloides (D & CP)
    • Pilze, Pilze, Pilze: Amanita phalloides (CP)
    • Ammirati et al .: p.88 (D), fig. 36 (CP)
    • Arora (1986): p. 269 (D & P), plate 50 (CP)
    • Arora (1991): p. 64-65 (D & CP)
    • Fischer & Bessette: p. 151 (D & CP)
    • Jordan: p. 198 (D & CP)
    • Jenkins: p.149 (D), figs. 15, 16 (CP)
    • Lincoff: p. 543 (D), plate 114 (CP)
    • McKenny et al. : p. 39 (D & CP)
    • Miller: p. 28 (D)
    • Phillips: p.28 (D & CP)
    • Smith: sp. 120 (D & CP)
    • Smith & Weber: sp. 154 (D & CP)
    • Thiers (1982): p. 35 (D)

    (D=Description; I=Illustration; P=Photo; CP=Color Photo)

The Fungi of California
Copyright © 1996-2016 Michael Wood & Fred Stevens
A MykoWeb Page

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Number of matches : 35
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Amanita phalloides%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Fungi") ORDER BY taxon

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Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 6250 3041 1190 0089 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 9187 3302 4603 0050 [detail]
Dr. Robert Thomas and Dorothy B. Orr
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 9187 3302 4603 0048 [detail]
Dr. Robert Thomas and Dorothy B. Orr
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 9187 3302 4603 0049 [detail]
Dr. Robert Thomas and Dorothy B. Orr
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 8203 3241 1758 0008 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 6250 3041 1190 0088 [detail]
© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 9187 3302 4603 0051 [detail]
Dr. Robert Thomas and Dorothy B. Orr
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 8203 3241 1758 0010 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 8203 3241 1758 0009 [detail]
© 1999 Saint Mary's College of California

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 0000 0000 0705 0499 [detail]
© 2005 Dee E. Warenycia

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap Mushroom
ID: 0000 0000 0109 0001 [detail]
© 2009 Ron Wolf

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap Mushroom
ID: 0000 0000 0109 0002 [detail]
© 2009 Ron Wolf

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap Mushroom
ID: 0000 0000 0109 0003 [detail]
© 2009 Ron Wolf

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 0000 0000 1109 1611 [detail]
© 2009 Ron Wolf

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 0000 0000 1109 1620 [detail]
© 2009 Ron Wolf

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 0000 0000 1109 1622 [detail]
© 2009 Ron Wolf

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 0000 0000 1109 1639 [detail]
© 2009 Ron Wolf

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 0000 0000 1109 1695 [detail]
© 2009 Ron Wolf

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 0000 0000 1109 1969 [detail]
© 2009 Ron Wolf

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap Mushroom
ID: 0000 0000 1210 0840 [detail]
© 2010 Ron Wolf

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap Mushroom
ID: 0000 0000 1111 1341 [detail]
© 2011 Rob Schell

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap Mushroom
ID: 0000 0000 1111 1342 [detail]
© 2011 Rob Schell

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
Death Cap
ID: 0000 0000 1112 2237 [detail]
© 2012 John W. Wall

Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides
ID: 0000 0000 1212 0668 [detail]
© 2012 John W. Wall

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