The order Anoplura is sometimes considered a suborder of Phthiraptera (lice).
More specifically than just lice though, Anoplura are sucking lice. These
louse are head louse and pubic louse. They are ectoparasites with piercing
mouthparts for sucking blood from the host. They are capable of transmitting
diseases but this is not common now, as it was in Europe during times of high
population density and no personal hygiene.|
Michigan State Entomology Department).
Lice have almost no fossil record;
the only fossils found were recovered on frozen mammals in Siberian permafrost
and are only about 10,000 years old. Since Phthiraptera are only found on
birds and mammals, we can predict they probably came into existence just before
Berkeley Museum of Paleontology).