Extracted from THE POLLEN-COLLECTING BEES OF THE ANTHIDIINI OF CALIFORNIA (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) by Grigarick A., A. (1968). |
Anthidium illustre Cresson, 1879. Trans. Amer. Ent Soc,
7:206. Holotype 9, Nevada (ANSP). Anthidium serranum Cockerell, 1904. Bull. South. Calif. Acad.
Sci., 3:24. Holotype $, Rock Creek, California.
Biology.—Johnson, 1904, Ent. News 15:284. Hicks, 1929, Can. Ent, 61:1-8. Parker and Bohart, 1966, Pan-Pac. Ent 44(2) :96.
Geographic range.—Northern Baja California, Arizona, Cali-fornia, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah.
California records.—ALAMEDA CO.: Oakland, 1 S, VI-15-47 (L. Jensen, CIS). BUTTE CO.: Chico, 1 $, V-1920 (V. Stevens, CIS). CALAVERAS CO.: Mokelumne Hill, 1 o, 1 S, VI-28-21 C. Fox, CAS); Murphys, 1 $, VI-1938 (F. Blaisdell, CAS). COLUSA CO.: Lodoga, 1 9, VII-12-55 (W. Lange, UCD).CONTRA COSTA CO.: Antioch, 2 $,2 9, V-24-49, on Lotus (J. MacSwain, P. Hurd, E. Linsley, CIS). Clay-ton, 6 mi. E, 2 6\ V-27-50 (T. Leigh, CIS). Mt Diablo,
1 9, V-3-53, on Cirsium (R. Sneiling, SS). EL DORADO CO.: Camino, 3 mi. S, 1 5,1 9, VI-26-48 (P. Hurd, CIS). Ky-burz, 1 5, VII-11-50 (W. Ehrhardt, CIS). Snowline Camp, 1 6", VI-27-48, on Phacelia (P. Hurd, CIS). FRESNO CO.: Watts Valley, 3 5, VI-22-56 (R. Schuster, CIS). GLENN CO.: Artois, 1 5, VI-13-52, on Lotus (J. MacSwain, CIS). INYO CO.: Independence, 1 5, 1 9, VI-1-37 (W. Reeves, CIS). KERN CO.: Mill Potrero, 9 5, 3 9, VII-6-59 (R. Bohart, UCD). Mojave, 12 mi. W, 1 5, VI-14-61, on Penstemon (R. Thorp, CIS). LAKE CO.: Blue Lakes, 1 $, V-20-59 (S. Fidel, UCD). Cobb Mt., 1 9, VI-9-5S (R. Bohart, UCD). Kelseyville, 1 5, V-23-57 (S. Fidel, UCD). Los ANGELES CO.: Arroyo Seco, 2 5, 1 9, VI-25-40, on Turricula Parryi (J. MacSwain, CIS). Camp Baldy, 1 5, VI-26-50 (W. Bentinck, CIS). Crystal Lake, 10 5, 2 9, VI-28-56 (A. Menke, L. Stange, LACM). Castaic, 10 mi. W, 1 $, VI-19-52 (G. Stage, SS). Glendale, 1 9, VI-11-49 (E. Schlinger, UCD). Tanbark Flat, 2 9, VI-21 and 30-50 on Lotus and Helianthus (P. Hurd, CIS). San Francisquito Canyon, 1 5, 1 9, IH-31-53 (A. Menke, LACM). Big Pines Canyon, 2 5, 1 9, VII-16-27, on Phacelia heterophylla (P. Timberlake, UCR). MADERA CO.: Bass Lake, 1 5, VI-6-38 (N. Hardman, CIS). Nipinnawasee, 1 $, 2 9, V-24-36 (E. Ross, CAS). MARIN CO.: Mt Tamalpais, 1 9, V-25-52 (G. Stage, SS). MARIPOSA CO.: Wawona, 1 5, VII-7-46 (H. Chandler, CAS). MENDOCINO CO.: Fort Bragg, 1 9, V-20-36, on Calochortus (I. McCracken, CAS). Willits, 1 9, VII-4-52 (W. Bentinck, CIS). MERCED CO.: Hilmar, 2 mi. S, 1 9, V-5-57, on Phacelia distans (R. Sneiling, G. Stage, SS). MODOC CO.: Lake City, 4 mi. S, 1 5, VI-9-46, on Medicago sativa (P. Hurd, R. Smith, CIS). Newell, 1 9,
VIH-2-63, on Medicago sativa (J. Schuh, JS). MONTEREY CO.: Arroyo Seco, 7 5,4 9, VII-1962 (F. Parker, UCD). Big Sur, 1 5, VIII-23-51 (W. Lange, UCD). Tassajara Hot Springs, 5 9, V-26-54 (O. Bryant, CAS). MONO CO.: Mono Lake, 1 9, VII-8-34 (G. Englehardt, CAS). NAPA Co.: Samuel Springs, 1 9, V-5-55 (A. Telford, UCD). NEVADA CO.: Boca, 1 9, VII-3-54, on Phacelia (P. Hurd, CIS). PLUMAS CO.: Greenville, 1 9, VII-11-59 (L. Stange, UCD). Meadow Valley, 1 9, VI-30-24 (E. Van Dyke, CAS). Quincy, 4 mi. W, 5 5, VI-26-49, on Phacelia (P. Hurd, CIS). RIVERSIDE CO.: Anza, 1 5, V-24-56, (L. Stange, LACM). Dark Canyon, 1 5, VI-31-40, on Lorus oblongi-tolius (C. Michener, CIS). Idyllwild, 15,19, VI-4-39, on Astragalus (E. Linsley, E. Ross, CIS). The Gavilan, 1 $, VI-24-38, on Lotus scoparius (P. Timberlake, UCR). Palm Springs, Andreas Canyon, 2 5, V-15-32, on Eriodictyon crassitolium (P. Timberlake, UCR). Pine Flat, 4 5, 1 9, VI-14-40, on Astragalus (C. Michener, CIS). Riverside, 12 5,4 9, IV-VI, on Lotus scoparius, Phacelia ramosissima, Lathyrus odoratus (P. Timberlake, UCR). SACRAMENTO Co.: Folsom, 7 5, 1 9, V-30-52 (T. Haig, CIS). Sacramento, 1 5, V-27-35 (I. McCracken, CAS). SAN BENITO CO.: Idria, 2 5,1 9, VI-29-55, on Phacelia (P. Hurd, M. Was-bauer, CIS). Pinnacles, 1 9, V-3-46 (J. MacSwain, CIS). SAN BERNARDINO CO.: Big Bear Lake, 1 5,1 9, VII-4-34 (I. McCracken, CIS). Cajon Pass, VI-25-49 (H. Cott, UCD). Mentone, 12 mi. E, 1 9, VII-11-56 (A. Menke, LACM). Lake Arrowhead, 2 5, VII-16-33, on Lotus argophyllus (P. Timberlake, UCR). Stockton Flat, 1 5, VII-2-36 (C. Dammers, UCR). SAN DIEGO CO.: Mt Laguna, 1 5, VIII-5-63, on Eriodictyon trichocalyx var. lantum (P. Hurd, CIS). Mt. Palomar, 1 5, VI-19-50 (F. Williams, CAS); Pala, 1 9, VI-21-59 (M. Irwin, UCD). Poway, 1 9, V-24-35 (E. Van Duzee, CAS). Warner Springs, 8 mi. S, 1 5, VII-4-56 (A. Menke, LACM). SAN FRANCISCO CO.: San Francisco, 1 9, IV-28-32 (Bryant, CAS). SANTA BARBARA CO.: Bluff Camp, San Rafael Mts., 2 5, VI-29-59 (F. Parker, UCD). Carpinteria, 2 5, VII-21-37 (B. White, CAS). SANTA CLARA CO.: Mt Hamilton, 1 5, V-30-50, on Eriodictyon (J. Mac¬Swain, CIS). SANTA CRUZ CO.: Highland District, 1 5, VI-17-56 (S. Fidel, UCD). Mission Springs, 2 5, VI-30-52, on Artemisia calilornica (R. Sneiling, SS). SHASTA CO.: Burney, 5 mi. E, 1 5, VI-9-41 (C. Anderson, CIS). Cassel, 1 5, VII-5-55 (A. Mueller, UCD). Cayton, 1 5, 1 9, VII-13-18 (E. Van Duzee, CAS). Lake Britton, 1 9, VI-29-47 (C. Hanson, CIS). SIERRA Co.: Gold Lake, 1 9, VIII-13-63 (R. Wescott, LACM). SISKIYOU CO.: Finlay Camp, 1 5, VII-7-58 (J. Powell, CIS). Montague, 4 5, VII-12-63, on Lorus (J. Schuh, JS). Mt Shasta City, 1 5, VI-23-58 (J. Powell, CIS). SOLANO CO.: Rio Vista, 4 5,1 9, V-24-49, on Lotus (P. Hurd, CIS). STANISLAUS CO.: La Grange, 1 9, V-28-61 (R. Sneiling, LACM). Turlock, 1 5, V-8-51, on Phacelia distans (R. Sneiling, SS). TRINITY CO.: Carrville, 1 9, V-21-34 (R., G. Bohart, CIS). Coffee Creek, 1 5,3 9, VI-8-25, on Lotus scoparius (P. Timberlake, UCR). Trinity Center, 1 9, VII-18-53, on Penstemon (A. McClay, UCD). TULARE CO.: Lemoncove, 1 9, IV-14-50, on Lupinus (J. MacSwain, CIS). Sequoia National Park, 1 5, VI-9-52 (R. Bechtel, UCD). Wood Lake, 1 5, IV-20-^7, (N. Frazier, CIS). TUOLUMNE CO.: Mather, 1 5, VI-8-61 (M. Irwin, UCD). Pinecrest 1 9, VII-2-52 (J. Stage, SS). Strawberry, 1 5, VII-15-51 (D. Lawfer, UCD). VENTURA Co.: Frazier Mt, 2 5, VII-14-46 (F. Ehrenford, CIS). YOLO Co.: Davis, 1 5,2 9, V-20-50 (R. Bechtel, UCD).
The males of iliustre are easily separated from those of formosum by the shape of sterna VI and VIII, and tergum VII. Tergum VI of the female pro¬vides the only easily used character to distinguish iliustre from formosum as was discussed for that species.
C. iliustre is the most commonly collected species of the genus, as shown by California records of 403 males and 205 females. The distribution of the two species is similar, but C. iliustre is found further south and apparently is more tolerant of drier con¬ditions. C. iliustre extends throughout the varied en¬vironments of California, but its occurrence is some¬what marginal in the Colorado and Mojave deserts. Plant visitations were recorded in five plant families, but over half the records were from Leguminosae (Lotus) and Hydrophyllaceae (Phacelia).
Females have been found nesting in dead flower stalks of yucca Whipplei and stumps of oak in southern California by Hicks (19296). The species has also been found using deserted burrows of the bee Anthophora occidentalis in clay banks in Colo¬rado by Johnson (1904), and trap nests by Parker and Bohart (1966). The number of cells per burrow ranges from two to ten and the cells are in one or two columns. The cells and cocoons (fig. 216) are separated by cottony down (fig. 215). From the observations of Hicks, the females search many plants to find a suitable material, and at least three types of fibers were found in one nest. Johnson found both white and brown fibers in the same nest and specu¬lated that the sources were pappus from composite flowers (brown) and trypetid galls (white). Hicks found one female to fly 103 feet from her nest to a source plant, Lepidospartum squamatum. The female uses her mandibles to scrape the tomentum from the plant and carries it back as a ball under her legs. The nesting burrows were closed by caps consisting of small pieces of old stems, seeds, and pebbles held together by a small amount of resin. The pollen ball was derived from Lotus scoparius in southern Cali¬fornia. It took eighteen days from pupation to the emergence of the adult in one case. Mating was ob¬served by Hicks around the pollen source plants. He found a cerambycid larva, Tragidion armatum, in one nest that was probably responsible for the mechanical destruction of two cells. Birds destroyed some cells by forcing their beaks into the nest.