- To 1m tall, glabrous below, pubescent or villous above, glaucous, purplish, branching above, erect, single from base, rhizomatous.
Stem with milky sap.
- Opposite, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, sessile or on short petioles, glabrous to variously pubescent, typically acute at tip, entire, to +10cm long, +4cm broad.
- Terminal and axillary dense cymes. Pedicels short, to -3mm long. Flowers each subtended by a small lanceolate bract to 2mm long.
- Corolla tubular, whitish to greenish-white, small, to 5mm long, 5-lobed, glabrous internally and externally. Lobes ovate to triangular, acute, spreading, 2mm long. Stamens 5, alternating with corolla lobes, included. Anthers orange, connate around stigma. Nectaries 5, alternating with stamens. Ovary of two carpels. Placentation parietal. Follicles to 20cm long, spreading or erect, typically slightly curved. Seeds with a coma.
- This species can be found throughout Missouri and is quite common. It can be identified in the field by its reddish stems, milky sap, opposite leaves, and small white flowers.
is used as "Hemp", made from the twisted fibers of the plant. The species epithet means "Hemplike". Traditionally the plant was also used to treat a variety of ailments. The sap of the plant contains cardiac glycosides and is toxic in moderate to large doses. Some of the secondary compounds of the plant have shown antitumor activity.
Steyermark divides the species into two varieties. Variety
(pictured above) is basically glabrous throughout the entire plant. Variety
exhibits pubescence on the leaves, stems, and calyx. Both are common.
Photographs taken at the Kansas City Zoo, 6-11-00, and in St. Louis, MO., 7-28-03.
This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of
Weeds of the U.S.
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