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Betula alleghaniensis Britton
YELLOW BIRCH
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Betulaceae   Betula

Betula alleghaniensis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula alleghaniensis

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Betula alleghaniensis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula alleghaniensis

Betula alleghaniensis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula alleghaniensis

Betula alleghaniensis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula alleghaniensis

Betula alleghaniensis
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 4
Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula alleghaniensis, bark - of a large tree

Betula alleghaniensis, leaf - whole upper surface
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula alleghaniensis, leaf - whole upper surface
Betula alleghaniensis, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula alleghaniensis, leaf - showing orientation on twig

Betula alleghaniensis, whole tree or vine - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula alleghaniensis, whole tree or vine - general
Betula alleghaniensis, bark - of a medium tree or large branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula alleghaniensis, bark - of a medium tree or large branch

Betula alleghaniensis, bark - of a small tree or small branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula alleghaniensis, bark - of a small tree or small branch
Betula alleghaniensis, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula alleghaniensis, inflorescence - whole - male

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Arthoniaceae  Arthonia dryadum @ GAL (1)
Calosphaeriaceae  Calosphaeria @ BPI (1)

Phragmocalosphaeria @ BPI (2)
Chaetomiaceae  Chaetomium globosum @ BPI (3)
Cicadellidae  Eratoneura parallela @ III (1)

Erythridula cornipes @ III (3)

Erythridula enata @ III (1)

Erythridula praecisa @ III (1)
Cystostereaceae  Cystostereum murrayi @ BPI (1)
Dacrymycetaceae  Dacrymyces palmatus @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Dermea molliuscula @ BPI (1)
Diaporthaceae  Diaporthe alleghaniensis @ BPI (4)
Diatrypaceae  Diatrype stigma @ BPI (4)

Eutypella angulosa @ BPI (1)
Graphidaceae  Graphis scripta @ GAL (1)
Helotiaceae  Chlorociboria aeruginosa @ BPI (1)
Hymenochaetaceae  Inonotus radiatus @ BPI (1)
Hypocreaceae  Hypocrea ceramica @ BPI (1)
Melanconidaceae  Melanconis decoraensis @ BPI (1)

Melanconis nigrospora @ BPI (5)
Meripilaceae  Rigidoporus nigrescens @ BPI (1)
Meruliaceae  Merulius tremellosus @ BPI (1)
Nectriaceae  Nectria canadensis @ BPI (1)

Tubercularia vulgaris @ BPI (1)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora martiana @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Daedaleopsis confragosa @ BPI (1)

Fomes fomentarius @ BPI (2)

Fomes igniarius @ BPI (2)

Lenzites betulina @ BPI (1)

Poria elongata @ BPI (1)

Poria laevigata @ BPI (1)
Pyronemataceae  Scutellinia setosa @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Stereum murrayi @ BPI (1)
Strophariaceae  Pholiota squarrosa @ BPI (1)
Thelephoraceae  Tomentella sublilacina @ BPI (1)
Tricholomataceae  Mycena haematopus @ BPI (1)

Mycena @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora @ BPI (1)

Valsa horrida @ BPI (2); 701210A (1); 701210B (1)
Xylariaceae  Hypoxylon mammatum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon multiforme @ BPI (3)
_  Asterosporium betulinum @ BPI (4)

Coniothecium betulinum @ BPI (2)

Cryptosporium neesii @ BPI (1)

Cylindrosporella microsperma @ BPI (1)

Gelatinosporium fulvum @ BPI (2)

Pleurophomella @ BPI (2)

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Following modified from Virginia Tech Dendrology
   
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 500 Can't connect to www.cnr.vt.edu:80 http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/balleghaniensis.htm

Following modified from US Forest Service
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/betula/alleghaniensis.htm

Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BEAL2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BEAL2
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BEAL2 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BEAL2
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BEAL2 ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BEAL2
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Betula alleghaniensis Britton
yellow birch

Image of Betula alleghaniensis

General Information
Symbol: BEAL2
Group: Dicot
Family: Betulaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Tree
Native Status : CAN   N
L48   N
SPM   N
Characteristics
Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Betula thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species . Northeast National Technical Center, Chester. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, PA. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, PA. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, PA. Usage Requirements .

H.S. Graves. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, NY. 1897. Usage Requirements .

P. Freeman Heim. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . 1971. Usage Requirements .

R.S. Homer. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, NY, Green Top Mountain. 1901. Usage Requirements .

Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, NH. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 610. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Hamamelididae
Order Fagales
Family Betulaceae – Birch family
Genus Betula L. – birch
Species Betula alleghaniensis Britton – yellow birch

Subordinate Taxa

The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Betula alleghaniensis . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Plant is native (blue) Native Plant is introduced Introduced Plant is introduced Native and Introduced Related taxa legend Distribution of <i>
Betula alleghaniensis</i>
Britton var. <i>
alleghaniensis </i>
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
yellow birch Distribution of <i>
Betula alleghaniensis</i>
Britton var. <i>
macrolepis</i>
(Fernald) Brayshaw
Betula alleghaniensis var. macrolepis
yellow birch

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Illinois yellow birch Endangered

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FACU
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont FAC
Great Plains FACU
Midwest FAC
Northcentral & Northeast FAC

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (BEAL2)
CalPhotos (BEAL2)
Flora of North America (BEAL2)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (BEAL2)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (BEAL2)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (BEAL2)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (BEAL2)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (BEAL2)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (BEAL2)
Related Websites
CT-University of Connecticut Plant Database (BEAL2)
Canada-Official Plants of Quebec (BEAL2)
Forestry Images (BEAL2)
NatureServe Ecological Association Comprehensive Report (BEAL2)
OH-Ohio Trees (OSU) (BEAL2)
PA-Common Trees of Camp Conestoga (BEAL2)
USDA Forest Service-Silvics of North America (BEAL2)
USDA NRCS Northeast Wetland Flora (BEAL2)
USDI FWS BayScapes Conservation Landscaping Program (BEAL2)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (BEAL2)
WI-Trees of Wisconsin (University of Wisconsin-Green Bay Herbarium (BEAL2)
www.BorealForest.org (BEAL2)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Betulaceae | Betula

1. Betula alleghaniensis Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 31: 166. 1904.

Yellow birch, merisier, bouleau jaune

Betula alleghaniensis var. fallax (Fassett) Brayshaw; B . alleghaniensis var. macrolepis (Fernald) Brayshaw; B . lutea F. Michaux; B . lutea var. macrolepis Fernald

Trees , to 30 m; trunks straight, crowns narrowly round. Bark of young trunks and branches dark reddish brown, in maturity tan, yellowish, or grayish, lustrous, smooth, irregularly exfoliating, or sometimes darkening and remaining close; lenticels dark, horizontally expanded. Twigs with odor and taste of wintergreen when crushed, glabrous to sparsely pubescent, usually covered with small resinous glands. Leaf blade narrowly ovate to ovate-oblong with (9--)12--18 pairs of lateral veins, 6--10 × 3--5.5 cm, base rounded to cuneate or cordate, margins sharply doubly serrate, teeth coarse, rather irregular, apex acuminate; surfaces abaxially usually moderately pubescent, especially along major veins and in vein axils, often with scattered, minute, resinous glands. Infructescences erect, ovoid, 1.5--3 × 1--2.5 cm, generally remaining intact after release of fruits in late fall; scales sparsely to moderately pubescent, lobes diverging proximal to middle, central lobe tapering to narrow tip, lateral lobes ascending or partially extended, broader, rounded. Samaras with wings narrower than body, broadest near summit, not or only slightly extended beyond body apically. 2 n = 84.

Flowering late spring. Stream banks, swampy woods, and rich, moist, forested slopes; 0--500 m; St. Pierre and Miquelon; N.B., Nfld., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Ala., Conn., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Betula alleghaniensis is a characteristic tree of the northern Appalachians and the hemlock hardwoods forest of the Great Lakes region. It was formerly widely known by the illegitimate (superfluous) name B . lutea F. Michaux.

Native Americans used Betula alleghaniensis medicinally as an emetic or cathartic, to remove bile from intestines, as a blood purifier, as a wash for "Italian itch," and as a diuretic (D. E. Moerman, as Betula lutea ).

Betula alleghaniensis is very closely related to B . lenta , which it resembles in many features (T. L. Sharik and R. H. Ford 1984). A distinctive feature is usually its freely exfoliating bark, although in certain populations the bark remains close and dark (B. P. Dancik 1969; B. P. Dancik and B. V. Barnes 1971).

Betula alleghaniensis Britton × B . papyrifera Marshall has seldom been reported, but it may actually be more common than realized in the northeastern states. In most features it is intermediate between the parents (B. V. Barnes et al. 1974).

Betula × purpusii Schneider (= Betula alleghaniensis Britton × B . pumila Linnaeus, 2 n = 70) is a rather common hybrid wherever the parent species occur together. The large shrubby plants show strikingly intermediate leaf characteristics.

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Betula+alleghaniensis+var.+alleghaniensis+&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Betula+alleghaniensis+var.+alleghaniensis+&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 10
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2469 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2470 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2471 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2472 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2473 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2474 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2475 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2476 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2477 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2478 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Betula+alleghaniensis&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Betula+alleghaniensis&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 23
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Betula alleghaniensis%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 0000 1003 0096 [detail]
© 2003 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 0000 1102 0576 [detail]
© 2002 University of California Museum of Paleontology

Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
ID: 0000 0000 0105 0647 [detail]
© 2005 Louis-M. Landry

Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
ID: 0000 0000 0105 0648 [detail]
© 2005 Louis-M. Landry

Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
(shown with Caltha palustris )
ID: 0000 0000 0107 0488 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
(shown with Caltha palustris )
ID: 0000 0000 0107 0489 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
ID: 0000 0000 0510 0592 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
ID: 0000 0000 0510 0593 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 0000 1016 0472 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 0000 1016 0473 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 0000 1016 0474 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 0000 1016 0475 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Betula alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 0000 1016 0476 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2469 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2470 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2471 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2472 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2473 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2474 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2475 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2476 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2477 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
ID: 0000 1111 1234 2478 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Updated: 2020-03-31 19:40:11 gmt
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