Betula nigra L.
RIVER BIRCH
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Betulaceae   Betula

http://www.discoverlife.org/nh/id/20q/Trees.xml ---> https://www.discoverlife.org/nh/id/20q/Trees.xml
Betula nigra, River Birch
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 7
Betula nigra, River Birch

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Betula nigra, Black Birch
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 5
Betula nigra, Black Birch
Betula nigra
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula nigra

Betula nigra
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula nigra
Betula nigra
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula nigra

Betula nigra
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula nigra
Betula nigra
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula nigra

Betula nigra
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Betula nigra
Betula nigra, River Birch
© John Pickering, 2004-2017 · 5
Betula nigra, River Birch

Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - male

Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - female
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - female
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - male

Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula nigra, inflorescence - whole - male
Betula nigra, whole tree or vine - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Betula nigra, whole tree or vine - view up trunk

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Calaphis betulella @ I_DJV (1); CSUC_TCN (2)

Calaphis neobetulella @ NCSU_ENT (3)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Phyllosticta betulina @ BPI (1)
Cicadellidae  Eratoneura linea @ III (3)

Eratoneura nigriventer @ III (1)

Erythridula coarctata @ III (1)

Erythridula nigriphylla @ III (1)

Erythroneura corni @ III (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium hydnans @ BPI (2)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium betulignum @ BPI (1)

Cladosporium caducum @ BPI (4)
Dermateaceae  Chlorosplenium aeruginascens @ BPI (1)

Discohainesia oenotherae @ 656069A (1); 656069B (1); BPI (1)

Gloeosporium betularum @ BPI (48)

Mollisia cinerea @ BPI (1)
Diaporthaceae  Phomopsis @ BPI (1)
Diaspididae  Chionaspis triformis @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Diatrypaceae  Diatrype stigma @ BPI (1)

Diatrypella favacea @ BPI (2)

Eutypella angulosa @ BPI (1)

Eutypella cerviculata @ BPI (1)

Eutypella microspora @ BPI (2)
Erysiphaceae  Phyllactinia corylea @ BPI (8)

Phyllactinia suffulta @ BPI (1)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea confragosa @ BPI (17)
Ganodermataceae  Ganoderma lucidum @ BPI (1)
Gnomoniaceae  Discula betulina @ BPI (1)

Gnomonia @ BPI (1)

Ophiognomonia intermedia @ BPI (2)
Graphidaceae  Phaeographis inusta @ I_GBP (1)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Velutaria rufo-olivacea @ BPI (1)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete agglutinans @ BPI (1)

Hymenochaete corrugata @ BPI (1)

Hymenochaete curtisii @ BPI (1)
Hyponectriaceae  Physalospora gregaria @ BPI (1)

Physalospora obtusa @ BPI (3)
Hysteriaceae  Hysterium angustatum @ BPI (1)

Hysterium pulicare @ BPI (8)
Lachnocladiaceae  Asterostroma cervicolor @ BPI (1)
Lecanoraceae  Lecanora strobilina @ GAL (1)

Pyrrhospora varians @ GAL (1)
Lygaeidae  Kleidocerys resedae @ UDCC_TCN (2); NCSU (1)
Magnaporthaceae  Clasterosporium irregulare @ 427864B (1); 427864A (1)
Marasmiaceae  Lachnella fraxinicola @ BPI (1)
Melanconidaceae  Coryneum compactum @ BPI (2)

Coryneum disciforme @ BPI (2)

Coryneum irregulare @ BPI (1)

Melanconium betulinum @ BPI (2)

Melanconium bicolor @ BPI (5)
Melanommataceae  Aposphaeria pezizoides @ BPI (2)
Membracidae  Telamona tristis @ UDCC_TCN (2)
Meruliaceae  Merulius tremellosus @ BPI (1)

Phlebia cinnabarina @ BPI (1)
Miridae  Barberiella formicoides @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Deraeocoris betulae @ NCSU (3)

Deraeocoris nebulosus @ NCSU (2)

Deraeocoris poecilus @ NCSU (15)

Myrtlemiris astartephila @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Neolygus betulae @ NCSU_ENT (29)

Orthotylus sp_ms_graciliphilus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Orthotylus sp_ms_notodytikos @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Orthotylus ute @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Phytocoris canadensis @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Plagiognathus albatus @ NCSU_ENT (102); AMNH_ENT (1)

Plagiognathus atricornis @ NCSU_ENT (41)

Plagiognathus fuscosus @ NCSU_ENT (1)

Psallus falleni @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Septoria betulicola @ BPI (2)
Onagraceae  Kneiffia setigera @ BPI (1)
Orbiliaceae  Orbilia inflatula @ BPI (2)
Parmeliaceae  Flavoparmelia caperata @ I_GBP (1)

Hypotrachyna livida @ I_GBP (1)

Parmotrema gardneri @ I_GBP (1)

Parmotrema submarginale @ I_GBP (1)

Punctelia rudecta @ I_GBP (2)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora cinerea @ BPI (3)
Physciaceae  Buellia curtisii @ I_GBP (1)

Heterodermia obscurata @ GAL (1)

Pyxine sorediata @ I_GBP (1)
Pleomassariaceae  Stegonsporium muricatum @ BPI (3)
Polyporaceae  Fomes bakeri @ BPI (2)

Fomes fomentarius @ BPI (7)

Fomes igniarius @ BPI (2)

Fomes robustus @ BPI (13)

Panus stipticus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus adustus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus albellus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus brumalis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus chioneus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus distortus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus elegans @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fissus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus galactinus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus gilvus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus pargamenus @ BPI (9)

Polyporus pubescens @ BPI (1)

Polyporus rutilans @ BPI (1)

Polyporus tulipiferus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (1)

Polyporus @ BPI (1)

Poria laevigata @ BPI (4)

Poria unita @ BPI (1)

Trametes malicola @ BPI (1)
Pseudoperisporiaceae  Eudimeriolum septentrionale @ BPI (2); 691892B (1)

Eudimeriolum @ 691892A (1)
Pyronemataceae  Phaeangium magnisporum @ BPI (1)
Reduviidae  Zelus luridus @ NCSU_ENT (1)
Sclerotiniaceae  Ciboria betulae @ BPI (3)
Steccherinaceae  Odontia brinkmannii @ BPI (1)

Steccherinum pulcherrimum @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Stereum rameale @ BPI (3)

Stereum sericeum @ BPI (3)

Stereum tuberculosum @ BPI (1)

Stereum umbrinum @ BPI (1)
Tenthredinidae  Craesus latitarsus @ I_JP (18)
Tingidae  Corythucha pergandei @ NCSU (44)
Tulasnellaceae  Tulasnella pruinosa @ BPI (1)
Typhulaceae  Sclerotium colchicum @ BPI (1)
Ulvaceae  Solenia anomala @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora betulina @ BPI (2)

Valsa ambiens @ BPI (2)

Valsa niphoclina @ BPI (1)
Xylariaceae  Daldinia concentrica @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon fuscum @ BPI (7)

Hypoxylon howeianum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon illitum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon multiforme @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon rubiginosum @ BPI (2)

Hypoxylon tinctor @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon truncatum @ BPI (1)

Xylaria hypoxylon @ BPI (1)
_  Cryptovalsa betulina @ BPI (1)

Grandinia mutabilis @ BPI (1)

Pilacre petersii @ BPI (1)

Sacidium microspermum @ BPI (1)

Sporidesmium antiquum @ BPI (2)

Valsaria insitiva @ BPI (3)

Valsaria nigrospora @ BPI (2)

Valsaria @ BPI (1)

unknown unknown @ AMNH_PBI (1)

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Following modified from Virginia Tech Dendrology
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 500 Can't connect to www.cnr.vt.edu:80 http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/bnigra.htm

Following modified from US Forest Service
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/betula/nigra.htm

Following served from Plant Bug AMNH_PBI00000908 wa1999%20l64%20h201
   
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Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
   
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BENI ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BENI
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BENI ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BENI
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BENI ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=BENI
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Betula nigra L.
river birch

Image of Betula nigra

General Information
Symbol: BENI
Group: Dicot
Family: Betulaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Tree
Native Status : L48   N
Characteristics
Fact Sheet (pdf) (doc) Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Betula thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species . Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

©Richard A. Howard. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Richard A. Howard Photograph Collection . United States, GA, Pine Mountain. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, FL. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. 1959. Usage Requirements .

©Rebecca Weller. TreesForMe . United States, TX, Tarrant Co., Fort Worth Botanical Gardens. April 14, 2012. Usage Requirements .

©Rebecca Weller. TreesForMe . United States, TX, Tarrant Co., Fort Worth Botanical Gardens. April 14, 2012. Usage Requirements .

©Rebecca Weller. TreesForMe . United States, TX, Tarrant Co., Fort Worth Botanical Gardens. April 14, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 609. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Hamamelididae
Order Fagales
Family Betulaceae – Birch family
Genus Betula L. – birch
Species Betula nigra L. – river birch

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
New Hampshire river birch Threatened

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FACW
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont FACW
Great Plains FACW
Midwest FACW
Northcentral & Northeast FACW

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (BENI)
CalPhotos (BENI)
Flora of North America (BENI)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (BENI)
Kemper Center for Home Gardening (BENI)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (BENI)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (BENI)
Native Plants Network (BENI)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (BENI)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (BENI)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (BENI)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (BENI)
Related Websites
AL-Auburn University Horticulture (BENI)
AL-Trees of Alabama and the Southeast (BENI)
AR-University of Arkansas Horticulture (BENI)
CT-University of Connecticut Plant Database (BENI)
FL-University of Florida Horticulture (USFS Fact Sheet) (BENI)
Forestry Images (BENI)
IL-Illinois State Museum (BENI)
IL-Selecting Trees for your Home (BENI)
MO-Missouri Plants (BENI)
NC-Plant Fact Sheet (BENI)
NE-Nebraska Forest Service (BENI)
OH-Plant Dictionary (Ohio State University) (BENI)
OH-Pocket Gardener (OSU) (BENI)
OK-Oklahoma Biological Survey (BENI)
OR-Oregon State University (BENI)
TX-Vascular Plant Image Gallery (TAMU) (BENI)
UK-Plants For A Future (BENI)
USDA Forest Service-Silvics of North America (BENI)
VA-Virginia Tech Dendrology Fact Sheet (BENI)
WI-Trees of Wisconsin (BENI)
WI-Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (BENI)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Betulaceae | Betula

5. Betula nigra Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 982. 1753.

River birch, red birch

Betula rubra F. Michaux

Trees , to 25 m; trunks often several, crowns round. Bark of mature trunks and branches grayish brown, yellowish, reddish, or creamy white, smooth, irregularly shredding and exfoliating in shaggy sheets when mature; lenticels dark, horizontally expanded. Twigs without wintergreen taste or odor, glabrous to sparsely pubescent, often with scattered, tiny, resinous glands. Leaf blade rhombic-ovate, with 5--12 pairs of lateral veins, 4--8 × 3--6 cm, base broadly cuneate to truncate, margins coarsely doubly serrate to dentate, apex acuminate; surfaces abaxially moderately pubescent to velutinous, especially along major veins and in vein axils, often with scattered, minute, resinous glands. Infructescences erect, conic or nearly globose, 1.5--3 × 1--2.5 cm, shattering with fruits in late spring or early summer; scales often persistent into early winter, lobes 3, ascending, branching distal to middle, narrow, elongate, equal to somewhat unequal in length, apex acute. Samaras with wings narrower than body, usually broadest near summit, not extended beyond body apically. 2 n = 28.

Flowering late spring. Riverbanks and flood plains, often where land is periodically inundated; 0--300 m; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Minn., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Betula nigra is a large and characteristic floodplain tree. Like several other species of this habitat (e.g., Acer saccharinum Marshall and Ulmus americana Linnaeus), it releases its fruits in early summer; the seeds germinate immediately (at a time when the surrounding land is unlikely to be flooded). The wood of Betula nigra is not in high demand for timber because of its generally poor quality. Cultivars with freely exfoliating bark are commonly cultivated in the Northeast and Midwest.

Native Americans used Betula nigra medicinally to treat dysentery, colds, and milky urine (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Betula+nigra&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Betula+nigra&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 11
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Betula nigra%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Betula nigra
Betula nigra
River Birch
ID: 0000 0000 1102 0172 [detail]
© 2002 University of California Museum of Paleontology

Betula nigra
Betula nigra
ID: 0000 0000 0506 1267 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Betula nigra
Betula nigra
ID: 0000 0000 0506 1268 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Betula nigra
Betula nigra
River Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0608 1570 [detail]
© 2008 Jason E. Willand

Betula nigra
Betula nigra
River Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0608 1571 [detail]
© 2008 Jason E. Willand

Betula nigra
Betula nigra
River Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0116 2586 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Betula nigra
Betula nigra
River Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0116 2587 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Betula nigra
Betula nigra
River Birch
ID: 0000 0000 0116 2588 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Betula nigra
Betula nigra
ID: 0000 0000 0516 1821 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Betula nigra
Betula nigra
ID: 0000 0000 0516 2267 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Betula nigra
Betula nigra
ID: 0000 0000 1116 2419 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

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