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Bombus fraternus (Smith, 1854)
Apathus fraternus; Bombus scutellaris Cresson, 1863; Bombus (Fraternobombus) fraternus (Smith, 1854)

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Apidae   Bombus
Subgenus: Cullumanobombus

Bombus fraternus, F, face ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Bombus fraternus, F, face ---.. ZS PMax

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Bombus fraternus, f, ga, baker, back ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Bombus fraternus, f, ga, baker, back ---.. ZS PMax
Bombus fraternus, f, ga, baker, side ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Bombus fraternus, f, ga, baker, side ---.. ZS PMax

Bombus fraternus, f, ga, baker, face ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Bombus fraternus, f, ga, baker, face ---.. ZS PMax
Bombus fraternus, f, back, Charleston Co., SC ---.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Bombus fraternus, f, back, Charleston Co., SC ---.

Bombus fraternus, f, face, Charleston Co., SC ---.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Bombus fraternus, f, face, Charleston Co., SC ---.
Bombus fraternus, f, right side, Charleston Co., SC ---.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Bombus fraternus, f, right side, Charleston Co., SC ---.

Bombus fraternus, m, back, Charleston Co., SC ---.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Bombus fraternus, m, back, Charleston Co., SC ---.
Bombus fraternus, m, bottom and legs, Charleston Co., SC ---.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Bombus fraternus, m, bottom and legs, Charleston Co., SC ---.

Bombus fraternus, m, face, Charleston Co., SC ---.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Bombus fraternus, m, face, Charleston Co., SC ---.
Bombus fraternus, m, left side, Charleston Co., SC ---.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Bombus fraternus, m, left side, Charleston Co., SC ---.

Bombus fraternus
JC Jones · 1
Bombus fraternus
Bombus fraternus, back
JC Jones · 1
Bombus fraternus, back

Bombus fraternus, 221807, male, dorsum
© USDA Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory, Logan Utah · 1
Bombus fraternus, 221807, male, dorsum
Bombus fraternus, 221807, male, face
© USDA Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory, Logan Utah · 1
Bombus fraternus, 221807, male, face

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queen rear tip
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queen wings
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queen rear leg
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queen front
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queen front top
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worker front
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male front
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Overview
Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1962 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 152.

QUEEN—Length 21-27 mm., breadth of abdomen 9-13 mm.; black, legs somewhat reddish-piceous, apical tarsal segments somewhat more brownish-piceous, the corbicular surface dark ferruginous; tegulae blackish; wings quite deeply infuscated basally, becoming slightly paler apically, veins testaceous to black; pubescence in general short but quite dense, entirely back on head; pubescence yellow on pronotum, anterior half of scutum, scutellum and in large part on pleura, the apical half of scutum black, forming a distinct interalar band; propodeum piceous laterally, nearly bare posteriorly, the venter and narrow anterior surface of pleura black; legs in general black pubescent, hairs quite short, without conspicuous posterior fringes, the corbicular fringe quite dense but of relatively short hairs; pubescence yellow, dense and short on abdominal terga 1 and 2, black on 3-6, in sharp contrast; upper half of clypeus quite finely, closely and deeply punctate, the apical two-thirds shining, with minute, irregular and rather sparse punctures; labrum rather broadly rounded, with a basa1, elevated ridge which is slightly interrupted medially, this area abruptly depressed to the margin; apex of mandible slightly notched toward upper angle, outer face somewhat shining, with minute, irregular and vague punctures; malar space shining and impunctate, very short, its median length only about half basal width of mandibles; eyes elongate, very slightly convergent above; ocelli much below supraorbital line, lateral ocelli subequally distant from eyes and each other, much more widely removed from margin of vertex; antennal scape two-thirds length of flagellum, basal segment of flagellum slightly shorter than segments 2 and 3 combined; posterior margin of hind basitarsus slightly incurved toward the base; tergum 6 narrowly rounded apically, largely bare, slightly impressed on each side.

WORKER—Length 13-18 mm., breadth of abdomen 6.5-9 mm.; with no evident structural or color differences from the queen.

MALE—Length 19-25 mm., breadth of abdomen 8-10 mm.; black, legs somewhat reddened apically, spurs reddish-piceous, tegulae blackish to piceous; wings quite deeply infuscated basally, becoming slightly paler apically, veins piceous to black; pubescence in general quite short but dense and copious, that on head entirely black, although somewhat hoary on lower part of face and cheeks; pubescence yellow on pronotum, scutellum and in large part on pleura and scutum, the latter with a small median area of short fuscous hairs posteriorly; pubescence fuscous on propodeum and on pleura beneath and anteriorly; legs largely black pubescent, apex of tibiae with some very dense, short, yellowish tomentum; abdominal terga 1 and 2 entirely and densely, short, yellow pubescent, 34 entirely black, the more apical terga with elongate and erect hairs; clypeus very finely and closely punctate except along apical margin; labrum somewhat more shining, irregularly and minutely punctate, slightly depressed medially, margin broadly rounded or subtruncate; mandibles very small and slender, slightly constricted medially, bidentate apically, the lower tooth much larger than the acute upper tooth; malar space linear, hardly evident, eyes nearly reaching base of mandible, strongly convergent above; lateral ocelli nearly contiguous with inner margin of eye, only slightly nearer margin of vertex than to antennae; flagellum long and slender, total length more than twice length of scape, basal segments 1 and 3 subequal in length, segment 2 considerably shorter; sterna 7 and 8 and genital armature as shown (fig. 132).


DISTRIBUTION—Michigan to Florida, March to November.

FLOWER RECORDS — Bidens, Eryngium, Gaillardia, Hypericum, Kuhnistera, Lespedeza, Monarda, Padus, Rhus and Vaccinium. Robertson (1929) gives the following additional records: Acerates, Aesculus, .4sclepias, Aster, Boltonia, Brauneria, Cassia, Cephalanthus, Cirsum, Collinsia, Eupaterium, Gerardia, Helenium, Helianthus, Krigia, Lithospermum, Lepachys, Melilotus, Nelumbo, Petalostemum. Psoralea, Pycnanthemum, Robinia, Rudbeckia, Silphium, Solanum, Solidago, Teucrium, Trifolium, Verbena and Zizia.

Identification
Extracted from: Laverty T.M., & Harder L.D., (1988). The Bumble Bees of Eastern Canada. Can. Ent. 120: 965-987.

Description. Queen and male large; worker medium to large. Wings dark. Head broadly rounded; malar space very short, about half as long as wide in female, and one-quarter as long as wide in male. Tongue short. Eyes large and bulging in male. Colouration of female as in Figure 22a, male Figure 22b. Pile on the face and vertex of some males with some yellow hairs.

Extracted by H. E Milliron. A Monograph of the Western Hemisphere Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae; Bombinae) II. The Genus Megabombus Subgenus Megabombus. The Entomological Society of Canada, Ottawa 1970. pp. 239-330.

D escription. Queen. Length, 23.0 mm; width at wing bases, 11.0 mm; abdomen, 11.0 mm, width across T2, 12.0 mm; front wing length, 21.0 mm, width, 7.0 mm. Head: Frontal outline (excluding mouthparts) broadly and roundly trapezoidal, the upper corners (temples) rather evenly rounded, its median height about equal to the greatest width, the occiput evenly arcuate and only weakly elevated; vertical region nearly flat, weakly inclined toward occiput and for the most part covered with medium punctures; ocular half of ocellocular area covered with small irregular punctures, the ocellar half mostly smooth; compound eyes more broadly and evenly rounded below than above, their inner margins subparallel and only slightly con­ verging above; ocelli rather large, situated in a weak arc well below the supraorbital line, distinctly closer together than their diameters, the interocellar line noticeably longer than the ocellocular line; malar space short, only slightly longer than distance between (and including) mandibular articulations, smooth and for the most part transversely convex; labrum nearly twice as wide as its greatest thickness, with an evenly arcuate ventral margin, the labral shelf rather strong and prominent, the tubercles not flattened, rather sharply transversely elevated, irregularly punctate, their mesal summits well separated by an arcuate intertubercular depression; flagellum If times longer than scape, FI subequal to combined lengths of F2 and F3, F3 distinctly longer than subquadrate F2; clypeus rather evenly but only moderately convex, about If times wider near base than its median height, well covered with small and medium punctures. Legs: Mesobasitarsite subrectangular, about 3f times longer than widest portion, the outer surface shallowly concave mid-longitudinally, the blunt equally extended distal angles with only a shallow emargination between, the posterior margin with at most a short fringe on its proximal half but absent on the distal half; outer surface of hind tibia shiny, microscopically granulose, with a longitudinal narrow concavity just anteriad of the middle, the corbicular fringe dense throughout and composed mostly of very weakly arcuate hairs of moderate length; outer surface of metabasitarsite shiny, shallowly concave longitudinally, the posterior margin weakly arcuate near the base becoming straight beyond, the posterior fringe composed of nearly straight hairs of moderate length on most of the basal half of margin then gradually becoming very short distally, the distal angles being very much like those of the mesoba­ sitarsite. Pubescence: Short, dense, and even throughout. Color: Head, rather broad (widest at the middle), interalar band, metapleura, venter, abdominal T3-6 and legs black; remainder of thorax and abdominal Tl-2 yellow (somewhat tawny). Wings rather deeply and evenly infumated with brownish black.

Worker. Length, 16.0 mm; width at wing bases, 7.0 mm; abdomen, 7.0 mm, width across T2, 7.0 mm; front wing length, 15.0 mm, width, 5.0 mm. Morphologically similar to queen except for more diminutive features; the coloration is like that of the queen.

Male. Length, 20.0 mm; width at wing bases, 8.5 mm; abdomen, 11.0 mm, width across T2, 8.5 mm; front wing length, 16.0 mm, width, 5.0 mm. Head: Frontal outline (excluding mouthparts) rounded except depressed across the vertex between the eyes. Its median height subequal to its widest dimension; vertical region weakly arcuate (convex) and mostly covered with small punctures, temples very narrow; ocelli relatively large, situated in a weak arc far below the supraorbital line, much closer together than their diameters; ocellocular area very narrow (much narrower than the diameter of the lateral ocellus), carinate and with few punctures, and interocellar line nearly 4 times longer than the ocellocular line; compound eye£ bulging, more broadly rounded above than below, their inner margins nearly straight, notice­ ably convergent above; malar space very short, at most only about i as long as distance between (and including) mandibular articulations, not noticeably convex, impunctate; labrum about 3 times as wide as its median thickness, the ventral margin nearly straight except arcuate at the corners, its surface almost flat with very weak or imperceptible callosities; flagellum about 3 times longer than scape, FI and F3 equal, each nearly H times longer than short rectangular F2; exposed ventral portion of clypeus rather evenly but weakly convex. Legs: Mesobasitarsite elongate-subrectangular, little more than 4 times longer than its widest portion, which is about equal to the longest hairs of the posterior fringe, its outer surface longi­ tudinally concave, the blunt distoanterior angle extended slightly beyond the rather sharper distoposterior angle with at most only a weak emargination between; metabasitarsite details similar to those of the mesobasitarsite except distoposterior angle is somewhat more rounded and the emargination between the distal angles is more pronounced. Pubescence: Like that of the female except somewhat shorter and finer especially on the thorax and somewhat sparser on the thoracic disc; mesobasitarsal posterior fringe rather dense, the hairs mostly straight, longest basally and gradually becoming moderately short at distal end; metabasitarsal posterior fringe less dense, rather long, the hairs mostly arcuate, the shorter ones at the very base and distal end. Genitalia and seventh and eighth abdominal sterna (PI. XVI). Color: Head largely tawny yellow except brownish black on genae and some black hairs intermixed on face and vertex; thorax mostly tawny yellow; legs black; abdominal T l - 2 and small patch at extreme distolateral corners of T3 tawny yellow, the remainder of T3 and T4-5 mostly black, T6 mostly black except paler laterally (yellowish brown), T7 largely deep tawny yellow. Wings evenly infumated with brownish black but less deeply so than in the female.

Comments. The only variation I can detect in this taxon has to do with aberrant color patterns especially associated with the female and particularly with the queen; such examples are illustrated (Milliron 1971: figs. 7, 8).* One of the hypotype queens [HEM] has abdominal T3 with a few yellowish brown tipped hairs at the distal center, some of the same type at the distal center and disto- laterally (left) on T4 and a few such hairs at the very distal center of T5; normally these terga are totally black.


Names
Scientific source:

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Anacardiaceae  Rhus glabra @ LACM_ENTB (1)
Asteraceae  Aster @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Bidens pilosa @ LACM_ENTB (3)

Eupatorium hyssopifolium @ BMEC_ENT (1)

Helenium tenuifolium @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Helianthus @ EMEC (1)

Solidago @ AMNH_BEE (1); BMEC_ENT (1)
Cleomaceae  Cleome serrulata @ UCRC_ENT (1)
Cucurbitaceae  Cucurbita pepo @ BBSL (1)
Euphorbiaceae  Euphorbia @ BMEC_ENT (1)
Fabaceae  Lupinus @ LACM_ENTB (2)

Medicago @ BMEC_ENT (2)
Lythraceae  Lagerstroemia @ BMEC_ENT (1)
Rosaceae  Rubus @ UCRC_ENT (1)

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