Canthidermis maculata (Bloch, 1786)
SPOTTED OCEANIC TRIGGERFISH
Rough Triggerfish
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Balistidae   Canthidermis

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Canthidermis maculata
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Canthidermis maculata

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Canthidermis maculata
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Canthidermis maculata
Canthidermis maculata
© Copyright Roger Steene, 2006 · 0
Canthidermis maculata
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Overview
Main identification features
  • grey to black, often pale spots
  • dorsal and anal finslong, pointed
Dorsal rays III + 23-27; anal rays 20-27; pectoral rays 14- 15; body of adults relatively elongate, depth of body about 2.3 in standard length; dorsal and anal fins long and curved, the anterior rays well elevated, much longer than posterior rays; longitudinal groove present in front of eye; no grooves on cheek; no cluster of large bony scales behind operculum; caudal fin double concave, rounded in juveniles; tail base without ridges or spines; snout without scales.

Blue grey to nearly black, usually covered with small white spots.

Size: grows to 50 cm.

Habitat: In our region it is usually seen at offshore islands or far out to sea around floating debris such as logs.

Depth: 0-110 m.

Circumglobal in tropical seas. The mouth of the Gulf of California to Peru, and the oceanic islands.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap).
Depth Range Max: 110 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: Pelagic crustacea; zooplankton; pelagic fish larvae.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=25; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=34; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Benthic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore; Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Flotsam; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Water column; Reef (rock &/or coral); Corals.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Offshore; In & Offshore.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 50 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Mid Water; Near Bottom; Near Surface; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Abbott, J.F., 1899., The marine fishes of Peru., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51:324-364.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
  • Bloch, M. E., 1786., Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische. Berlin., Naturg. Ausl. Fische, 2:1-160.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Chirichigno, N., 1998., Clave para identificar los peces marinos del Peru., Instituto del Mar del Peru, Informe., 44(2 Ed.):1-387.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Garrison, G., 2000., Peces de la Isla del Coco., Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad:393.
  • Grove , J.S. and Lavenberg, R. J., 1997., The fishes of the Galápagos islands., Stanford University Press:863 pp.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Hunter, J. R. and Mitchell, C. T., 1966., Association of fishes with flotsam in the offshore waters of Central America., Fishery Bulletin, 66:13-29.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • McCosker , J.E. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 1975., Fishes collected at Malpelo Island. In Graham, J.B. (ed.) The Biological Investigation of Malpelo Island, Colombia., Smithsonian Contrib. Zool., 176:91-93.
  • Mora, C., Francisco, V. and Zapata, F. A., 2001., Dispersal of juvenile and adult reef fishes associated with floating objects and their recruitment into Gorgona island reefs, Colombia., Bull. Mar. Sci., 68:557-561.
  • Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.

Acknowledgements

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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Tetraodontiformes  
 Family Balistidae  
 Genus Canthidermis  
  Canthidermis maculata    (Bloch, 1786) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Balistes adspersus Balistes americanus Balistes angulosus Balistes azureus Balistes brevissimus Balistes longissimus Balistes longus Balistes macropterus Balistes maculatus Balistes melanopterus Balistes minimum details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); Fishes of Japan(Nakabo, 2002); 中國動物誌-魨形目(蘇等, 2002)
Name Code: 382963
  IUCN Red List:LC      
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Canthidermis&speciesname=maculata ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Canthidermis-maculata.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Canthidermis maculata   (Bloch, 1786)

Rough triggerfish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Canthidermis maculata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Canthidermis maculata (Rough triggerfish) Canthidermis maculata
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae (Triggerfishes)
Etymology: Canthidermis: Greek, kanthos = the outer or inner corner of the eye, where the lids meet, 1646 + Greek, derma = skin (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 110 m (Ref. 9710 ).   Subtropical; 46°N - 18°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumglobal. But not in Mediterranean. Western Pacific: north to Hokkaido, Japan and east to French Polynesia. Eastern Pacific: Puerto Vallarta, Mexico to Huacho, Peru, and including the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 9276 ). Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA and Bermuda to South America (Ref. 7251 ). Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde and west coast of Africa (Ref. 7348 ). Western Indian Ocean: South Africa (Ref. 4420 ) and Reunion (Ref. 53568 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9276 ); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 23-25; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 20 - 22. Head, body and fins of adults dark; body with elongated white spots that may disappear with growth (Ref. 4420 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in shallow coastal and offshore waters (Ref. 9276 , 11230 ). Epipelagic nearly all throughout life, often associated with drifting objects (Ref. 1602 , 44187 ). May occur on deep rocky slopes (Ref. 7251 ). Feeds on zooplanktons (Ref. 89972 ). Appear to school in large numbers based on catches from set nets (Ref. 637 ). Oviparous (Ref. 205 ). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9770 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Distinct pairing (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Matsuura, Keiichi | Collaborators

Myers, R.F. , 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Least Concern (LC)  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911 )




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 23 - 29, mean 27.7 (based on 2250 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01243 - 0.05316), b=2.94 (2.77 - 3.11), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.45 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Froese, Rainer Modified by Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei Fish Forum
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