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Carassius auratus_auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)
GOLDFISH
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Cyprinidae   Carassius

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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Carassius auratus (Linnaeus , 1758)

Goldfish Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Carassius auratus (Goldfish) Carassius auratus
Picture by Winter, T.J.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Carassius: Latinization of , karass, karausche, European crucian carp (Ref. 45335 ) ;   auratus: From the words carassius --Latin of karass (common name for these fishes in Eurasia) and auratus , meaning gilded (Ref. 10294 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19; potamodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 6898 ).   Subtropical; 0°C - 41°C (Ref. 35682 ); 53°N - 22°N

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Asia: central Asia and China (Ref. 7050 ) and Japan (Ref. 6390 ). Introduced throughout the world. Asian form of the goldfish (Ref. 1739 ). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27549 ); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987 ); max. reported age: 41 years (Ref. 72468 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 3 - 4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-20; Anal spines : 2-3; Anal soft rays : 4 - 7; Vertebrae : 30. Body stout, thick-set, caudal peduncle thick and short (Ref. 1998 ). Head without scales (Ref. 39167 , 1998 ), broadly triangular (Ref. 1998 ), interorbital space broad, snout longer than eye diameter, maxillary reaching posterior nostril or not quite to eye (Ref. 39166 ), barbels lacking on upper jaw (Ref. 39104 , 1998 ). Lateral line complete. Dorsal and anal fins with serrate bony spines, pelvic fins short, broad and thoracic. Nuptial tubercles of male fine, on opercle, sometimes on back and a few on pectoral fins. Hybridize readily with carp, hybrids intermediate in most characteristics (Ref. 1998 ). Caudal fin with 17-19 rays (Ref. 2196 ). Last simple anal ray osseous and serrated posteriorly; no barbels (Ref. 43281 ). Pigmentation: Wild-caught specimens, olive brown (Ref. 39168 , 39104 ), slate olive, olive green, with a bronze sheen (Ref. 39104 ), silvery, grayish yellowish, gray-silver (Ref. 39169 ), through gold (often with black blotches) to creamy white (Ref. 1998 ); yellowish white or white below. Cultured forms vary through scarlet, red-pink, silver, brown, white, black and combinations of these colors (Ref. 39104 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit rivers, lakes, ponds and ditches (Ref. 5258 , 10294 ) with stagnant or slow-flowing water (Ref. 30578 ). Occur in eutrophic waters, well vegetated ponds and canals (Ref. 59043 ). Live better in cold water. Feed mainly on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus (Ref. 59043 ). Goldfish lay eggs on submerged vegetation. Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808 ). Oviparous, with pelagic larvae. They last long in captivity (Ref. 7248 ). Maximum recorded salinity is 17 ppt (Ref. 39171 ), but unable to withstand prolonged exposure above 15 ppt (Ref. 39172 , 39174 ). Used as an experimental species (Ref. 4537 ). Valued as ornamental fish for ponds and aquaria; edible but rarely eaten (Ref. 9987 ). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 100 cm (Ref. 51539 ). Reported individual hooked by an angler in a lake in Poole, Dorset measured 40 cm (16 in), weighing 2.3 kg (Practical Fishkeeping, 2010).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Cold water temperatures during the winter months are necessary for proper ova development (Ref. 44091 ). Spawning takes place in shallow water among weeds, often where willow roots grow exposed in water (Ref. 39171 ), also meadows inundated by spring flood (Ref. 39176 ). Spawning activity begin just before dawn (Ref. 39168 ), to midafternoon (Ref. 39177 ). Individual fish spawn 3-10 lots of eggs at intervals of 8-10 days (Ref. 39180 ). Juveniles need high temperature to grow. Eggs are sticky, attached to water plants or submerged objects (Ref. 59043 ). Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo , 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. (Ref. 7050 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 04 August 2010

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: highly commercial; bait: occasionally FAO(Aquaculture: production ; fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Bio-Quiz | E-book | Field guide | Identification keys | Length-frequency wizard | Life-history tool | Point map | Classification Tree | Catch-MSY |

Special reports

Check for Aquarium maintenance | Check for Species Fact Sheets | Check for Aquaculture Fact Sheets

Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.01175 - 0.01549), b=3.00 (2.96 - 3.04), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  2.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.17; tm=1; tmax=30). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (24 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Unknown .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Torres, Armi G. Fish Forum
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