1st dorsal fin : high, origin over rear edge pectoral
top teeth narrow, hooked
pectoral: long, straight
Body slender; snout rounded, its length = to or < width of mouth but > distance between nostrils; nasal orifices small and well separated; round eye; spiracle absent; upper front teeth narrow and hooked, with finely serrated points; 5 short gill slits, last 2 over pectoral fin base; first dorsal high, front edge straight, origin over or just behind rear edge of pectoral; second dorsal moderately high, origin over anal origin; pectoral long, straight; no raised crest on back between dorsal fins; tail strongly asymmetrical, with well developed lower lobe, undulating ridge along dorsal surface of top lobe, and a ventral notch near tip of that lobe; notch on top of tail base; distinct bulge on top of base of tail fin.
Dark grey-brown above, belly whitish; tips of pelvics and tips and rear borders of pectorals dark to blackish.
Size: 325 cm.
Habitat: inshore to offshore, continental, from surfline deeper.
Depth: 0-360 m.
Circumglobal; California to the Gulf of California and central Mexico, the Revillagigedos, Peru.
Attributes Abundance: Common. Cites: Not listed. Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos). Depth Range Max: 360 m. Depth Range Min: 0 m. Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish; bony fishes. Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-79; Latitudinal range=42; Longitudinal range=39. Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva. Feeding Group: Carnivore. FishBase Habitat: Pelagic. Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); East Pacific + East (not West) Atlantic; TEP non-endemic; West + East Pacific (but not Central); "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species. Habitat: Water column. Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Offshore; In & Offshore. IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed. Length Max: 325 cm. Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; California + Peruvian provinces, primarily; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; All species. Residency: Resident. Salinity: Marine; Marine Only. Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Near Surface; Surface; Water column only;
Bellido-MillŠn, J.M. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C.J., 2002., Pesqueria artesanal de tiburon en la region central del Golfo de California. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leůn:143-152.
Bťarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leůn:153-170.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versiůn 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .† Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservaciůn Internacional.
Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
GŁnther, A., 1870., Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Gymnotidae, Symbranchidae, Muraenidae, Pegasidae, and of the Lophobranchii, Plectognathi, Dipnoi, ...[thru] ... Leptocardii, in the British Museum., Brithish Museum (Natural History)8:1-549.
Jimenez-Prado, P., Bťarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
Jordan , D.S. and Bollman, C.H., 1890., Descriptions of new species of fishes collected at the Galapagos Islands and along the coast of the United States of Colombia, 1887-88, by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer 'Albatross'., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 12:149-183.
Jordan, D.S., 1895., The fishes of Sinaloa., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2), 5:377-514.
Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
Madrid Vera , J. , RuŪz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de MichoacŠn y sus relaciones regionales en el PacŪfico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, Mťxico., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.
was listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN.
New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia
Extra Distribution Information
Moreton Bay, QLD to Geraldton, WA; numerous observational records indicate a much broader distribution, particularly from offshore areas in Queensland and Western Australia, but these records are unconfirmed and probably based on more than one species; temperate, circumglobal (except central Pacific), antitropical.
Southwest Shelf Transition (30), Southwest Shelf Province (31), Great Australian Bight Shelf Transition (32), Spencer Gulf Shelf Province (33), Western Bass Strait Shelf Transition (34), Bass Strait Shelf Province (35), Tasmanian Shelf Province (36), Southeast Shelf Transition (37), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38)
A large, fairly slender species. Snout moderately long and narrowly rounded or pointed. Eyes length 1.1-2.2% of total length. Gill slits moderately long, the 3rd 2.5-4.1% of total length and less than a half of 1st dorsal fin base. Rows of anteroposterior teeth in each jaw half 14-16/14-15. upper teeth with narrow, serrated, high bent cusps, and crown feet with slightly coarser serrations but no cusplets. Lower teeth with semierect, narrow serrated cusps and transverse roots. Interdorsal ridge absent usually. Origin of first dorsal fin over or slightly anterior to pectoral rear tips. Second dorsal fin small and fairly low, its height 1.9-2.6% of total length, its inner margin short and 1.2-1.8 times its height. Origin of 2nd dorsal fin over or slightly posterior to anal origin. Total vertebral centra 179-203, precaudal centra 96-110. Colour bronzy to olive grey above, white below, a moderately prominent white band on flank.
An inshore to offshore, warm-temperate shark, occurring from the sea surface to at least 100m depth. Viviparous species, with a yolk-sac placenta. Number of embryos 13-20 per litter. Sex ratio of embryos is 1:1. Age of sexual maturity of this species whic
Western Atlantic including Mexico, Gulf of Mexico, southern Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic including Mediterranean Sea, off France and Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Canary Islands, Guinea, Namibia to South Africa. Western Indian Ocean including Sou
This species is taken in bottom trawlers, line gear, and by spots anglers. This species were caught by longline fisheries in northeastern Taiwan waters but not very common. Flesh is utilized for human consumption.
Western Atlantic: Mexico, Gulf of Mexico, Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: off France southward and around the coast of southern Africa to central Natal, South Africa (Ref.
), including the Mediterranean. Possibly two separate populations in southern Africa (Ref.
). Western Pacific: Japan to New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to the Gulf of California in Mexico and Peru.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
, range 245 - 240 cm
Max length : 325 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. published weight: 304.6 kg (Ref.
); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref.
: 0. A large shark to with a bluntly pointed, broad snout, narrow, bent cusps on the upper teeth, and with no interdorsal ridge (Ref.
). Grey to bronzy in color, white below (Ref.
); fins mostly plain except for dusky tips on pelvic fins, as well as dusky to black tips and rear edges on pectoral fins (Ref.
A coastal and offshore shark (Ref.
) found along continental margins in most tropical and temperate seas. Occasionally enters large coastal bays and inshore areas (Ref.
). Occasionally found near the bottom (Ref.
). Migratory in the northern part of its range, moving northward in spring and summer and southward in autumn and winter (Ref.
). Feeds on pelagic and bottom bony fishes, cephalopods, and small sharks and rays (Ref.
). Viviparous (Ref.
). Undoubtedly utilized for human consumption where it occurs (Ref.
). Implicated in shark attacks on people (Ref.
Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta. Litter contains 7 to 20 pups (Ref.
). Young born at 59 - 70 cm TL (Ref.
). Pupping may occur at any time of the year but there is a peak in births in summer (Ref.
). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref.
, 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 11.6 - 23.8, mean 17.4 (based on 797 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00226 - 0.00967), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 4.5 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.04; tm=5-20; tmax=30; Fec=7).
): Very high vulnerability (87 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Carpenter, Kent E.
Orta√Īez, Auda Kareen
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