Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1870)
BRONZE WHALER
Black-tipped Whaler; Bronze Whaler Shark; Bronzie; Cocktail; Cocktail Shark; Copper Shark; Eulamia brachyura Günther, 1870; Galeolamna ahena Stead, 1938; Galeolamna brachyurus Günther, 1870; Galeolamnoides brachyurus Günther, 1870; Carcharinus brachyurus Günther, 1870; Galeolamna greyi Owen, 1853; Eulamia ahenea Stead, 1938; Carcharias brachyurus Günther, 1870; Narrowtooth Shark
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Carcharhinidae   Carcharhinus

http://www.discoverlife.org/nh/id/20q/SFTEP.xml ---> https://www.discoverlife.org/nh/id/20q/SFTEP.xml
Carcharhinus brachyurus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Carcharhinus brachyurus

Click on map for details about points.

Links
80x5 - 240x3 - 240x4 - 320x1 - 320x2 - 320x3 - 640x1 - 640x2
Set display option above.
Click on images to enlarge.
Carcharhinus brachyurus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Carcharhinus brachyurus
Carcharhinus brachyurus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Carcharhinus brachyurus
espaol

Overview
Main identification features
  • slender; snout rounded
  • 1st dorsal fin : high, origin over rear edge pectoral
  • top teeth narrow, hooked
  • pectoral: long, straight
Body slender; snout rounded, its length = to or < width of mouth but > distance between nostrils; nasal orifices small and well separated; round eye; spiracle absent; upper front teeth narrow and hooked, with finely serrated points; 5 short gill slits, last 2 over pectoral fin base; first dorsal high, front edge straight, origin over or just behind rear edge of pectoral; second dorsal moderately high, origin over anal origin; pectoral long, straight; no raised crest on back between dorsal fins; tail strongly asymmetrical, with well developed lower lobe, undulating ridge along dorsal surface of top lobe, and a ventral notch near tip of that lobe; notch on top of tail base; distinct bulge on top of base of tail fin.

Dark grey-brown above, belly whitish; tips of pelvics and tips and rear borders of pectorals dark to blackish.

Size: 325 cm.

Habitat: inshore to offshore, continental, from surfline deeper.

Depth: 0-360 m.

Circumglobal; California to the Gulf of California and central Mexico, the Revillagigedos, Peru.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos).
Depth Range Max: 360 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish; bony fishes.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-79; Latitudinal range=42; Longitudinal range=39.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); East Pacific + East (not West) Atlantic; TEP non-endemic; West + East Pacific (but not Central); "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Offshore; In & Offshore.
IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed.
Length Max: 325 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; California + Peruvian provinces, primarily; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Near Surface; Surface; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Bellido-Milln, J.M. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C.J., 2002., Pesqueria artesanal de tiburon en la region central del Golfo de California. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Len:143-152.
  • Barez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Len:153-170.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versin 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo . Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservacin Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Gnther, A., 1870., Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Gymnotidae, Symbranchidae, Muraenidae, Pegasidae, and of the Lophobranchii, Plectognathi, Dipnoi, ...[thru] ... Leptocardii, in the British Museum., Brithish Museum (Natural History)8:1-549.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Barez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Bollman, C.H., 1890., Descriptions of new species of fishes collected at the Galapagos Islands and along the coast of the United States of Colombia, 1887-88, by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer 'Albatross'., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 12:149-183.
  • Jordan, D.S., 1895., The fishes of Sinaloa., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2), 5:377-514.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacn y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacfico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, Mxico., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


Supported by
go to Discover Life's Facebook group

Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
   Top | See original

http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/d304ef9f-6d07-4e49-82be-65e466b17c23 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/d304ef9f-6d07-4e49-82be-65e466b17c23
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts

Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory

You are here:  Environment home » Biodiversity » ABRS » AFD » ANIMALIA (Kingdom) » CHORDATA (Phylum) » VERTEBRATA (Subphylum) » GNATHOSTOMATA (Higher Taxon) » PISCES (Higher Taxon) » CHONDRICHTHYES (Class) » ELASMOBRANCHII (Subclass) » CARCHARHINIFORMES (Order) » CARCHARHINIDAE (Family) » Carcharhinus Blainville, 1816 (Genus) » Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1870)

Species Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1870)

Museums

Regional Maps

External Links

CAAB : 37018001 Taxon concept Carcharhinus_brachyurus last modified 2014-03-13 14:41:28.159

Species Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1870)

Bronze Whaler , Black-tipped Whaler, Bronze Whaler Shark, Bronzie, Cocktail, Cocktail Shark, Copper Shark

 

Taxonomic Decision for Synonymy

 

Generic Combinations

 

Miscellaneous Literature Names

 

Introduction

In 2003, Carcharhinus brachyurus was listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN.

 

Distribution

States

New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia


Extra Distribution Information

Moreton Bay, QLD to Geraldton, WA; numerous observational records indicate a much broader distribution, particularly from offshore areas in Queensland and Western Australia, but these records are unconfirmed and probably based on more than one species; temperate, circumglobal (except central Pacific), antitropical.


IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)

IMCRA

Southwest Shelf Transition (30), Southwest Shelf Province (31), Great Australian Bight Shelf Transition (32), Spencer Gulf Shelf Province (33), Western Bass Strait Shelf Transition (34), Bass Strait Shelf Province (35), Tasmanian Shelf Province (36), Southeast Shelf Transition (37), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38)

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Continental shelf, inshore, marine, pelagic.

Extra Ecological Information

Surface to 100 m.

 

General References

Coleman, N. 1980. Australian Sea Fishes South of 30ºS . Lane Cove, NSW : Doubleday Australia Pty Ltd 309 pp. [26]

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [464]

Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. 2005. A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World . London : Collins 368 pp. [292]

Compagno, L.J.V. & Niem, V.H. 1998. Family Carcharhinidae. pp. 1312-1360 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes . Rome : FAO Vol. 2 687-1396 pp. [1331]

Garrick, J.A.F. 1982. Sharks of the genus Carcharhinus . National Marine Fisheries Service (U.S.). Technical Report 445 : 1-194 figs 1-83

Hutchins, J.B. & Swainston, R. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete field guide for anglers and divers . Perth : Swainston Publishing 180 pp. [24]

Kailola, P.J., Williams, M.J., Stewart, P.C., Reichelt, R.E., McNee, A. & Grieve, C. 1993. Australian Fisheries Resources . Canberra : Bureau of Resource Sciences and the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation 422 pp. [193]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [235]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp. [254]

Macbeth, W.G., Vandenberg, M. & Graham, K.J. 2008. Identifying Sharks and Rays; A guide to Commercial Fishers . Sydney : New South Wales Department of Primary Industry pp. 71. [25]

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [9] (59, as Carcharhinus greyi greyi and p. 10, 66, as C. ahena )

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 507 pp. figs. [19]

Stevens, J.D. 1994. Families Carcharhinidae, Triakidae, Scyliorhinidae. pp. 120-138 figs 76-107 in Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds). The Fishes of Australia's South Coast . Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs. [121]

White, W. 2008. Shark Families Heterodontidae to Pristiophoridae. pp. 32-100 in Gomon, M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds). Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast . Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp. [68]

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89 (1): 11-127 [33] (46, as Galeolamna greyi, in part and 49, as Galeolamna ahenea )

 

Common Name References

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [464] (FAO) (Copper Shark)

Gomon, M.F., Glover, C.J.M. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds) 1994. The Fishes of Australia's South Coast . Adelaide : State Printer 992 pp. 810 figs. [122] (Black-tipped Whaler, Bronzie, Cocktail)

Haling, G., Kennedy, T., Last, P. & Palmer, R. 1988. Recommended Marketing Names for Fish . Canberra : Australian Government Publishing Service 238 pp. [149] ( Bronze Whaler )

Kuiter, R.H. 1993. Coastal Fishes of South-eastern Australia . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 437 pp. [12] ( Bronze Whaler )

May, J.L. & Maxwell, J.G.H. 1986. Field Guide to Trawl Fish from Temperate Waters of Australia . Hobart : CSIRO Division of Marine Research 492 pp. [105] (Cocktail Shark)

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [10] (Bronze Whaler Shark)

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Bronze Whaler )

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
16-Aug-2012 16-Aug-2012 MODIFIED
16-Apr-2012 16-Apr-2012 MODIFIED
29-Jul-2011 MODIFIED

Accessibility | Disclaimer | Privacy | Freedom of information | © Commonwealth of Australia
Last modified: Thursday, 13 March 2014 2:41:28 PM AEDT

Department of the Environment and Energy
GPO Box 787
Canberra ACT 2601 Australia
+61 (0)2 6274 1111 ABN

Our land. Our plan. Our future.
Australian Government  

Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
   Top | See original

 
Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Carcharhiniformes  
 Family Carcharhinidae  
 Genus Carcharhinus  
  Carcharhinus brachyurus    (Günther, 1870) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Carcharhinus acarenatus Carcharhinus ahenea Carcharhinus improvisus Carcharhinus remotoides Carcharhinus remotus Carcharhinus rochensis Carcharias brachyurus Carcharias lamiella Carcharias remotus Eulamia ahenea Galeolamna ahenea details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001); FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
Character: A large, fairly slender species. Snout moderately long and narrowly rounded or pointed. Eyes length 1.1-2.2% of total length. Gill slits moderately long, the 3rd 2.5-4.1% of total length and less than a half of 1st dorsal fin base. Rows of anteroposterior teeth in each jaw half 14-16/14-15. upper teeth with narrow, serrated, high bent cusps, and crown feet with slightly coarser serrations but no cusplets. Lower teeth with semierect, narrow serrated cusps and transverse roots. Interdorsal ridge absent usually. Origin of first dorsal fin over or slightly anterior to pectoral rear tips. Second dorsal fin small and fairly low, its height 1.9-2.6% of total length, its inner margin short and 1.2-1.8 times its height. Origin of 2nd dorsal fin over or slightly posterior to anal origin. Total vertebral centra 179-203, precaudal centra 96-110. Colour bronzy to olive grey above, white below, a moderately prominent white band on flank. 
Habitat: An inshore to offshore, warm-temperate shark, occurring from the sea surface to at least 100m depth. Viviparous species, with a yolk-sac placenta. Number of embryos 13-20 per litter. Sex ratio of embryos is 1:1. Age of sexual maturity of this species whic 
Distribution: Western Atlantic including Mexico, Gulf of Mexico, southern Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic including Mediterranean Sea, off France and Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Canary Islands, Guinea, Namibia to South Africa. Western Indian Ocean including Sou 
Utility: This species is taken in bottom trawlers, line gear, and by spots anglers. This species were caught by longline fisheries in northeastern Taiwan waters but not very common. Flesh is utilized for human consumption. 
Name Code: 383069
  IUCN Red List:NT      
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
User Response:   upload Comments    upload Photo
 
Previous Page       Home Page

Following modified from FishBase
   Top | See original

http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Carcharhinus&speciesname=brachyurus ---> http://www.fishbase.se/summary/Carcharhinus-brachyurus.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Carcharhinus brachyurus   (Günther, 1870)

Copper shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Year 2100
Reviewed map
Carcharhinus brachyurus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Google image Image of Carcharhinus brachyurus (Copper shark) Carcharhinus brachyurus
Picture by Smith, B.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 360 m (Ref. 58018 ).   Subtropical; 45°N - 52°S, 122°W - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Mexico, Gulf of Mexico, Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: off France southward and around the coast of southern Africa to central Natal, South Africa (Ref. 5578 ), including the Mediterranean. Possibly two separate populations in southern Africa (Ref. 3209 ). Western Pacific: Japan to New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to the Gulf of California in Mexico and Peru.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 230.0 , range 245 - 240 cm
Max length : 325 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334 ); max. published weight: 304.6 kg (Ref. 40637 ); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 3209 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. A large shark to with a bluntly pointed, broad snout, narrow, bent cusps on the upper teeth, and with no interdorsal ridge (Ref. 5578 ). Grey to bronzy in color, white below (Ref. 5578 ); fins mostly plain except for dusky tips on pelvic fins, as well as dusky to black tips and rear edges on pectoral fins (Ref. 9997 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A coastal and offshore shark (Ref. 9997 ) found along continental margins in most tropical and temperate seas. Occasionally enters large coastal bays and inshore areas (Ref. 6390 ). Occasionally found near the bottom (Ref. 6808 ). Migratory in the northern part of its range, moving northward in spring and summer and southward in autumn and winter (Ref. 244 ). Feeds on pelagic and bottom bony fishes, cephalopods, and small sharks and rays (Ref. 5578 ). Viviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Undoubtedly utilized for human consumption where it occurs (Ref. 244 ). Implicated in shark attacks on people (Ref. 9997 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta. Litter contains 7 to 20 pups (Ref. 6871 , 6390 ). Young born at 59 - 70 cm TL (Ref. 6390 ). Pupping may occur at any time of the year but there is a peak in births in summer (Ref. 6390 ). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Near Threatened (NT)  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690 )




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

E-book | Field guide | Identification keys | Length-frequency wizard | Life-history tool | Point map | Classification Tree | Catch-MSY |

Special reports

Check for Aquarium maintenance | Check for Species Fact Sheets | Check for Aquaculture Fact Sheets

Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 11.6 - 23.8, mean 17.4 (based on 797 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00226 - 0.00967), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.04; tm=5-20; tmax=30; Fec=7). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (87 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Ortañez, Auda Kareen Fish Forum
Comments & Corrections
Sign our Guest Book Back to Search Random Species Back to Top
Accessed through: Not available FishBase mirror site : Stockholm, Sweden Page last modified by : mrius-barile - 20 July 2016
Total processing time for the page : 0.1323 seconds

Updated: 2018-11-16 07:50:07 gmt
Discover Life | Top
© Designed by The Polistes Corporation