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Carcharhinus leucas (Müller &. Henle, 1839)
BULL SHARK
Estuary Shark; Estuary Whaler Shark; Freshwater Whaler; Hervey Bay Whaler Shark; River Whaler; River Whaler Shark; Swan River Whaler Shark; Carcharhinus bogima Whitley, 1943; Carcharhinus mckaili Whitley, 1945; Carcharhinus spenceri Ogilby, 1911; Eulamia bogimba Whitley, 1943; Eulamia spenceri Ogilby, 1911; Galeolamna mckaili Whihtley, 1945; Galeolamna spenceri Ogilby, 1911; Carcharhinus gangeticus Müller and Henle, 1839; Platypodon gangeticus Müller and Henle, 1839; Carcharias spenceri Ogilby, 1910; Galeolamna bogimba Whitley, 1943; Galeolamna greyi mckaili Whitley, 1945; Carcharias leucas Müller and Henle, 1839

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Carcharhinus leucas
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Carcharhinus leucas

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Carcharhinus leucas
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Carcharhinus leucas

Carcharhinus leucas
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Carcharhinus leucas
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Overview
Main identification features
  • heavy body;snout very short, round
  • 1st dorsal fin broad, high, pointed, origin over pectoral insertion
  • pectoral: broad, pointed
Heavy-bodied; snout short and broadly rounded; eye small; no ridge on back between dorsal fins; origin of first dorsal fin usually over or just posterior to pectoral axil; first dorsal fin moderately large, its height 7.0-11.3% of total length; apex of first dorsal fairly pointed; origin of second dorsal distinctly in front of anal origin; pectoral wide, pointed.

Grey, becoming white ventrally, often with faint pale grey horizontal band extending into the white of the upper abdomen; fins of small individuals with dusky tips or edges, adults plain.

May reach 350 cm; size at birth 56-81cm.

Habitat: continental coasts, estuarine, muddy areas, lagoons, often travels far up rivers.

Depth: 0-150 m.

All tropical and subtropical seas; southern California to the Gulf and to Peru, Malpelo and the Revillagigedos.





Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 150 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: bony fishes; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); octopus/squid/cuttlefish; sharks/rays; sea snakes/mammals/turtles/birds; mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=42; Longitudinal range=40.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Mangrove; Water column; Reef (rock &/or coral); Rocks; Reef and soft bottom; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Mud; Sand & gravel; Beach; Estuary; Freshwater.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed.
Length Max: 350 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Freshwater; Marine.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Near Surface; Surface; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Bellido-Millán, J.M. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C.J., 2002., Pesqueria artesanal de tiburon en la region central del Golfo de California. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:143-152.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Candanedo , C. and D'Croz, L., 1983., Ecosistema acuático del lago Bayano: un embalse tropical., Publicación Técnica IRHE, Dirección de Ingenieria, Departamento de Hidrometeorología, Panamá., :38pp.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Compagno , L. J. V. and Cook, S. F., 1995., The exploitation and conservation of freshwater elasmobranchs: status of taxa and prospects for the future., Journal of Aquariculture and Aquatic Sciences, 7:62-90.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • McCosker , J.E. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 1975., Fishes collected at Malpelo Island. In Graham, J.B. (ed.) The Biological Investigation of Malpelo Island, Colombia., Smithsonian Contrib. Zool., 176:91-93.
  • Müller , J. and Henle, F. G. J., 1839., Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen. Berlin., Plagiostomen, :27-102.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Starks, E. C., 1906., On a Collection of fishes made by P. O. Simons in Ecuador and Peru., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 30:761-800.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Vega, A.J., Villareal, N., 2003., Peces asociados a arrecifes y manglares en el Parque Nacional Coiba., Tecnociencia, 5:65-76.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Species Carcharhinus leucas (Müller & Henle, 1839)

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CAAB : 37018021 Taxon concept Carcharhinus_leucas last modified 2016-07-21 11:58:48.049

Species Carcharhinus leucas (Müller & Henle, 1839)

Bull Shark , Estuary Shark, Estuary Whaler Shark, Freshwater Whaler, Hervey Bay Whaler Shark, River Whaler, River Whaler Shark, Swan River Whaler Shark

 

Taxonomic Decision for Synonymy

 

Generic Combinations

 

Miscellaneous Literature Names

 

Introduction

In 2005 Carcharhinus leucas was placed on the IUCN Red List as Near Threatened.

 

Distribution

States

New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia


Extra Distribution Information

Perth, WA to Sydney, NSW, often ascends rivers into freshwater, but freshwater localities are not well documented in Australia; tropical, circumglobal.


IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)

IBRA

NSW, NT, Qld, WA: Arnhem Coast (ARC), Arnhem Plateau (ARP), Central Arnhem (CA), Central Kimberley (CK), Central Mackay Coast (CMC), Cape York Peninsula (CYP), Daly Basin (DAB), Darwin Coastal (DAC), Dampierland (DL), Gulf Fall and Uplands (GFU), Gulf Coastal (GUC), Gulf Plains (GUP), Northern Kimberley (NK), NSW North Coast (NNC), Pine Creek (PCK), South Eastern Queensland (SEQ), Swan Coastal Plain (SWA), Tiwi Cobourg (TIW), Victoria Bonaparte (VB), Wet Tropics (WT)

IMCRA

Northern Shelf Province (25), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Southwest Shelf Transition (30), Southwest Shelf Province (31), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Estuary, freshwater, inshore, pelagic.

Extra Ecological Information

Surface to 150 m.

 

General References

Allen, G.R., Midgley, S.H. & Allen, M. 2002. Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 394 pp. [328]

Berra, T.M. 2010. Clarification of field characters for three freshwater sharks and a photographic atlas of Glyphis glyphis and G . garricki from Adelaide River, Northern Territory, Australia. The Beagle, Records of the Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory 26 : 109–114

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [478]

Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. 2005. A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World . London : Collins 368 pp. [299]

Compagno, L.J.V. & Niem, V.H. 1998. Family Carcharhinidae. pp. 1312-1360 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes . Rome : FAO Vol. 2 687-1396 pp. [1339]

Hutchins, J.B. & Swainston, R. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete field guide for anglers and divers . Perth : Swainston Publishing 180 pp. [24]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [244]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp. [262]

Macbeth, W.G., Vandenberg, M. & Graham, K.J. 2008. Identifying Sharks and Rays; A guide to Commercial Fishers . Sydney : New South Wales Department of Primary Industry pp. 71. [24]

McCulloch, A.R. 1929. A check-list of the fishes recorded from Australia. Part I. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 5 : 1–144 [10] (as Aristarchus gangeticus, in part, Carcharhinus spenceri )

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [8] (55, as C. mckaili , p. 10, 64, as C. bogimba and p. 11, 70, as C. spenceri )

Pepperell, J. 2010. Fishes of the Open Ocean a Natural History & Illustrated Guide . Sydney : University of New South Wales Press Ltd 266 pp. [202]

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 507 pp. figs. [19]

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1997. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 557 pp. figs. [19]

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89 (1): 11-127 [33] (42, as Platypodon gangeticus, in part, 52 as Galeolamna mckaili , 55 as Galeolamna ( Lamnarius ) spenceri , 58 as Galeolamna ( Bogimba ) bogimba )

 

Common Name References

Allen, G.R. 1982. Inland Fishes of Western Australia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 86 pp. 6 figs 20 pls. [61] (Estuary Shark)

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [478] ( Bull Shark )

Grant, E.M. 1975. Guide to Fishes . Brisbane : Queensland Government, Co-ordinator General’s Department 640 pp. [43] (Estuary Whaler Shark, Hervey Bay Whaler Shark)

Lake, J.S. 1978. Australian Freshwater Fishes . Melbourne : Thomas Nelson 160 pp. 140 figs. [11] (River Whaler Shark)

Merrick, J.R. & Schmida, G.E. 1984. Australian Freshwater Fishes Biology and Management . Sydney : J.R. Merrick 409 pp. figs 280 col. figs. [35] (Freshwater Whaler, River Whaler)

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [8] (Swan River Whaler Shark)

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Bull Shark )

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
16-Aug-2012 21-Jul-2016 MODIFIED
16-Apr-2012 16-Apr-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)

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Last modified: Thursday, 21 July 2016 11:58:48 AM AEST

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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Carcharhiniformes  
 Family Carcharhinidae  
 Genus Carcharhinus  
  Carcharhinus leucas    (Müller & Henle, 1839) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Carcharhinus amboinensis Carcharhinus azureus Carcharhinus nicaraguensis Carcharhinus vanrooyeni Carcharhinus zambezensis Carcharias azureus Carcharias leucas Carcharias spenceri Carcharias zambesensis Carcharias zambezensis Carcharinus leucas details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001); FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
Character: A large, stout species; size up to about 3.4 m. Snout short and bluntly and broadly rounded; internarial width 0.7-1.0 times in preoral length; upper labial furrows short and inconspicuous; the 3rd gill slit 3.1-4.1 of total length, but less than 1/3 of 1st dorsal fin base; anteroposterior teeth formula in each jaw half 12-14/12-13; upper teeth with very broad, triangular, strongly serrated, erect to slightly oblique cusps; lower teeth with erect to semioblique, broad serracted cusps and arched roots. Interdorsal ridge absent. First dorsal fin large, with a pointed rounded apex; origin of 1st dorsal fin usually over or just behind pectoral insertions; length of inner margin of 1st dorsal fin short, less than 1/3 of dorsal fin base; 2nd dorsal fin large and high, its length 3.2-4.5 of total length; origin of second dorsal anterior to anal origin; pectoral fin large and broad, triangular, with narrow, pointed apices, length of anterior margins about 18-21% of total length; 198-227 total vertebral centra, 101-123 precaudal centra. 
Habitat: A coastal, estuarine, riverine and lacustrine shark usually found close inshore in marine habitats, in water 0-152 m depth. Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta; number of young 1-13 per litter; some females may give birth to young in fresh water lakes su 
Distribution: Wide distribute along the continental coasts of all tropical and subtropical seas and sometimes traveling far up warm rivers and into freshwater lakes. In Taiwan, this species were caught by longliner from northeastern and eastern waters uncommonly. 
Utility: An important fisheries species. It is caught mainly with longlines and hook-and-line gear and utilized fresh, fresh-frozen or smoked for human consumption; its hide is used for leather, its fins for shark-fin soup, and its liver for oil, which is extracte 
Name Code: 383073
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