Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1962 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 152. |
FEMALE—Length 6.5-8 mm.; general body color bluish to blue-green, clypeus either largely black or with a median, subapical, ivory maculation; antennae somewhat more piceous apically; legs basally metallic blue- green, becoming darker on tibiae, tarsi becoming brownish-testaceous apically, spurs pale testaceous; tegulae brownish-testaceous; wings lightly infuscated, veins testaceous to piceous; cheeks very slightly narrower than eyes; clypeus quite flat, its median length somewhat more than half the apical width: mandibles distinctly tridentate apically; clypeus smooth and impunctate medially, becoming rather sparsely punctate on each side; face laterally with rather coarse, close punctures, but surface shining and largely impunctate just below antennae, and a shining impunctate area below ocelli, punctures otherwise quite coarse and deep, irregularly scattered, becoming fine and very sparse on cheeks laterally and below; punctures of thorax much finer than those on face, scutum sparsely punctate between notaulices, with only a few punctures along mid-line, becoming closely punctate anteriorly and posteriorly; scutellum finely and quite sparsely punctate medially; punctures of pleura considerably coarser, deeper and well separated, those on propodeum laterally very fine and densely crowded. becoming shallow and obscure posteriorly, dorsal face rather narrowly and finely striate along upper margin; punctures of abdominal terga rather fine but distinct, quite sparse medially, becoming close laterally on 2 and 3. and closer on the more apical terga; pubescence entirely pale, very short, thin and inconspicuous, somewhat more conspicuous and elongate on mid and hind legs.
MALE—Length 5-7 mm.; general body color blue-green, clypeus largely ivory, only narrowly greenish on each side above; labrum with a quadrate, median, yellow maculation; antennae piceous to black; legs blackish with metallic reflections, tarsi becoming testaceous apically, spurs pale yellowish; tegulae testaceous-hyaline; wings lightly infuscated, veins testaceous to piceous; cheeks much narrower than eyes; clypeus quite flat, its median length considerably greater than half the apical width; mandibles bidentate apically. having a small, subapical tooth on lower margin; segments 2 and 3 of flagellum considerably broader than long; hind femora conspicuously angulate beneath, median width about one half the length; carina of tergum broadly rounded, fully twice as broad as its median length; clypeus largely impunctate, face shining between the coarse and deep punctures, these rather close below antennae, becoming more irregular and sparse above, shallow and rather close on cheeks above, becoming quite sparse below; punctures of thorax much finer than those on head, sparse on scutum between notaulices, becoming close anteriorly and posteriorly; scutellum rather flat, finely and rather closely punctate, punctures only slightly separated anteriorly; coarser but deep, distinct and quite close on pleura; minute on propodeum, densely crowded on lateral faces, rather obscure on the more shining posterior face, dorsal area very finely and closely striate along upper margin; punctures of abdominal terga fine, well separated across median areas of 2-4, interspaces considerably exceeding diameter of punctures; pubescence very short, thin and obscure, more evident on thorax laterally and on legs, tergum 6 with a rather dense, median, subapical tuft of short pale hairs; apical margin of sternum 6 with a median cleft bearing a pair of peg-like processes and a shorter median process; sternum 7 Y-shaped, its basal stem rather short, the latero-apical arms very slender (as shown); sternum 8 and genital armature as shown (fig. 124).
DISTRIBUTION — Quebec and Maine, south to Missouri and Georgia, March to October.
FLOWER RECORDS — Ajoeynum, Chrysanthemum, Chrysopsis, Crataegus, Fragaria, Geranium, Haplopappus, Hydrangea, hex, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Rubus, Salix, Saivia, Taraxacuin and Vaceiniun. Robertson (1929) records calcarata on the following: Antennaria, Arabic, Aruncus, Aster, Blephilia, Cacalia, Camascia, Cardamine, Cercis, Claytonia, Cohncia. Cypripedium, Direa, Filisia, Erigenia, Erigeron, Eulophus, Geum, Gillenia, Hepatica, Isopyrum, Lepidi’um, Osmorrhyza, Oxalis, Polemonium, Potentilla, Ranunculuc, Rhus, Rudbeckia, San guinaria, Smilacina, Taenidia, Verbena, Viola and Zanthoxylum.
Reprinted with permission from: Daly, Howell. 1973. Bees of the Genus Ceratina in America North of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) University of California Publications in Entomology Volume 74:1-113
Ceratina calcarata Robertson, 1900
(Figs. 9b, 12i, 16, 2Sf)
Ceratina calcarata Robertson, 1900, Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans., 10:54 (holotype male and type locality not designated; lectotype male designated below)
Ceratina calcarata, Ran, 1926, Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans., 25:184 (biol.)
Ceratina calcarata, Rau, 1928, Ann. Entomol Soc. Am., 21:380 (biol.)
Zadontomerus ca1caratus, Robertson, 1929, Flowers and Insects, Lancaster, Pa., Science Press (flwr.)
Ceratina calarata, Sandhouse, 1935, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash., 37(4) :94—95 (tax., key, geogr.)
Ceratina calcarata, Michener, 1936, Am. Mus. Novit., 844:9, 11 (key)
Ceratina calcarata, Krombein, 1960, Entomol News, 71:68 (nat. enem.)
Ceratina calcarata, Mitchell, 1962, N.C. Agric. Exp. St., Tech. Bull., No. 152:502—503 (key, desc., geogr., flwr., figs.)
Ceratina calcarata, Daly, Stage, and Brown, 1967, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 60(6)1274 (nat. enem.)
Lectotype male.—Measurements and ratios: ‘wing, 4.4 mm; hamuli, 5; eye, 115:125:100:90; elypeus, 55 x 90:30:80; interocellar, 20:40:20:50, Ø 19.0; frontal earina, 60; malar area, 0 x 45; interalveolar, 20:22:40:45, Ø 20.0; antenna, 40:12:12:10:10:15, Ø 15.0; subpleural signum, 15.0 x 3.0.
Mitchell (1962) has recently redescribed both sexes of Ceratina calcarata and has provided a key. The males are readily distinguished among the eastern species by the large femoral tooth which is obtusely angled 115°, fringed ventrally with long, curling setae (fig. 9b), and the width at the tooth is slightly more than 0.5 length. The width of the broad apical plate (fig. 12i) may be more than 3.0 times the length. These structural characters, plus the medium size and bluish or bluish green color will separate C. calcarata from C. dupla which has virtually no femoral tooth and from C. strenua which averages smaller, is more greenish, and has a narrow apical plate.
The females of C. calcarata and C. dupla are separated with certainty only by rearing with the associated males. Attempts have been made to provide key characters (Sandhouse, 1935; Mitchell, 1962), but I have been unable to confirm the distinctions. After long experience in Indiana, Chandler (in litt.) observed that females of C. calcarata lack a spot on the labrum and have the clypeal mark absent to triangular. Over half of the females of C. dupla have a spot on the labrum and a bell-shaped clypeal mark which may be reduced but not absent. Other characters, according to Chandler, are unreliable. In this study, the distribution map (fig. 16) is based only on males.
Robertson did not designate a holotype in his description of C. calcarata and no specimen in his collection bears an unequivocal type label. Dr. W. E. LaBerge has kindly provided 35 males from the Charles Robertson collection at the Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana. Among these, I have selected a specimen as the lectotype which bears a top label “13707,” a lower label “Charles Robertson Collection,” and my red lectotype label. The number refers to an entry in Robertson’s record book: “1893:13707 Ceratina tejonensis male April 11 on Ranunculus fascicularis.” The specimen is deposited in the Illinois Natural History Survey. It corresponds to Mitchell’s description (1962), but has a broader apical plate. The lectotype differs from fig. 12i given here in having the median teeth separate to their bases.
Flowers visited by males: Aesoulus glabra sargentii Alliaria officinalis, Amelanchier canadensis arborea, Amphora fruticosa, Amphiachyris dracunculoides, Aster sp., A. azureus, A. laevis, A. macrophyllus, A. paniculatus, A. sagittifolius, Barbarea vulgaris, Bicuculla cucullaria, Brassica sp., Callirhoe digitata, Caltha palustris, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Ceanothas ovatus, Celastrus scandens, Cerois sp., Chionanthus virginicus, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Chrysopsis sp., Cirsium sp., Claytonia caroliniana virginica, Convolvulus sepium, Crataegus sp., Dentaria diphylla, Deutzia qracilis, Echium vulgare, Erigeron canadensis, E. philadelphicus, E. pulchellus, E. ramosus, Erythronium sp., Eupatorium ageratoides, Euphorbia sp., E. marginata, Forsythia, sp., Fragaria sp., F. virginiana, Geranium maculatum, Grossularia sp., Haplopappus, sp., Helenium sp., Helianthus sp., Heterotheca sp., Hydrangea sp., H. paniculata, flex sp., Inula Helenium, Kolkwitzia amabilis, Lepargyrea canadensis, Lonicera sp., L. siberica, L. tatarica, Mcculara pomifera, Malva rotundifolia, Melilotus alba, M. officinalis, Oxalis sp., 0. europaea, Potentilla recta, Prunus americana, P. gracilis, P. persica, P. serotina, P. tomentosa, Pulsatilla hirsutissima, Pyracantha sp., Pyrus ioensis, Rhus sp., R. aromatica, R. canadensis, R. glabra, Ribes missouriense, Robina pseudocacia, Rubus sp., Salix sp., S.discolor, S. nigra, Sambucus sp., Scilla campanulata, Senecio aureus, Solidago sp., S. canadensis, S. rigida, S. rupestris, Spiriaea vanhouttei, Taraxacum officinale, T. taraxacum, Tussilago farfara, Vaccinium sp., Verbena sp., Viburnum molle, Viola papilionacea, Waldsteinia, Zizia aurea.