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Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758
RED DEER
Wapiti; Elk

Life   Vertebrata   Mammalia   Cervidae   Cervus

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Cervus elaphus, elk
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Cervus elaphus, elk
Cervus elaphus, elk
© Copyright Gail Starr 2011 · 1
Cervus elaphus, elk

Cervus elaphus_map.320.jpg
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Cervus elaphus map
Cervus elaphus_map.GSMNP.320.jpg
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Cervus elaphus map
GSMNP
Overview
Throughout their range, elk inhabit a variety of habitats. They usually frequent high, open mountain pastures in summer and move to lower wooded slopes, often dense woods, in winter.

  • Special Protection Status

    • Rangewide: Elk are classified as a game species in most states where they occur and are protected by state game laws.

    • In Park: All plants and animals are protected within Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Collection requires a permit which is usually granted only for research or educational purposes.


Identification
  • Adult total length: 6 3/4 - 9 3/4 ft. (203 - 300 cm)

  • Tail: 3 1/8 - 8 3/8 in. (80 - 213 mm)

  • Height at shoulder: 4 1/2 - 5 ft. (137 - 150 cm)

  • Weight: 450 - 1,089 lbs. (203 - 495 kg)

  • Physical Characteristics: The elk is the second largest cervid in the world, second only to the moose. The sides and back are grayish-brown, and the underparts are blackish. The head, neck, and legs are dark brown. The rump and tail are buff-white. A dark brown mane is present on the neck. Females possess four mammae. The antlers usually possess at least five tines, with the brow tine forming an obtuse angle with the beam (Linzey, 1998). Antlers can weigh over 28 pounds (13 kg.) (Whitaker and Hamilton, 1998).


Names
Scientific source:

Phylogeny
Taxonomic Category Scientific Name Common Name
Phylum Chordata Chordates
Class Mammalia Mammals
Order Artiodactyla Even-toed ungulates
Family Cervidae Elk; Deer

Geographic distribution
Elk originally ranged over much of the United States. Now, however, their range has been restricted mainly to scattered localities in the western half of the United States. The largest contiguous range exists in the Rocky Mountains south to northern New Mexico. Small, isolated, introduced populations exist in Pennsylvania, Michigan, Kentucky, and several other states.

  • Range Maps

    North America Great Smokies

  • Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Linzey and Linzey (1968) summarized the history of this species in the park and surrounding area:

    "Although the American elk roamed throughout the mountains in former times, it has become extirpated. In 1896, Rhoads stated: "At the beginning of the present century, this noble animal was probably a visitant to every county in the state [Tennessee]." Ganier (1928) reported that the last one in eastern Tennessee was shot in 1849.

    In discussing the status of this mammal in North Carolina, Hamnett and Thornton (1953) reported that it "once inhabited at least a portion of North Carolina including the northern Piedmont and Mountain counties. It is doubtful if they were ever very numerous, however, since this region was near the southern limits of their range." They stated further that "...it probably was present in the Mountain Region until the late 1700's." Brimley (1945) recorded that elk occurred in colonial times in the mountains of North Carolina until at least 1750. Cope (1870) noted that horns of elk were found in the Black Mountains in western North Carolina in the early 1800's."

    In February 2001, 12 cows ( 6-9 of which were pregnant) and 13 bulls from Kentucky's Land Between the Lakes were released in Cataloochee Valley. At least four of the cows gave birth. Twenty-five additional elk are expected to be released in the park during 2002, and 25 more the following year.


Natural history
  • Reproduction
    The rutting season extends from August to November, peaking in October and November. During this time, adult bulls assemble harems of up to 60 cows. Bulls give their bugling call, roll in wallows of stagnant water and mud, and urinate on vegetation. After a gestation of about 255-275 days, a cow leaves the herd to give birth usually to 1 calf, sometimes 2, weighing 25 to 40 pounds. After a week, the cow rejoins the herd with her calf. The calf is entirely dependent on milk for one month. Weaning is completed in two months. Protective adaptations of young elk include a spotted pelage, a lack of scent, and a capacity to remain still and silent.

    The first elk calf born in the park was born on June 22, 2001. The birth of 4 calves were confirmed during 2001. One calf may have been stillborn and one was most likely killed by a coyote.

  • Longevity
    Elk have been known to live for at least 25 years in captivity, but seldom reach this age in the wild (Whitaker and Hamilton, 1998).

  • Terrestrial Ecology
    Elk are primarily nocturnal but are most active at dawn and dusk. Larger herds occur in open areas with smaller groups being found in wooded areas. Territories are marked by rubbing the sides of the chin and muzzle on freshly stripped seedlings.

    Rutting bulls emit a "bugle" or "whistle" which serves as a warning to other bulls and a means of domination to cows. The vocalization begins as a bellow, changes almost immediately to a loud, shrill whistle or scream, and ends with a series of grunts. Cows neigh to their calves and may also whistle during the spring but not as loudly as bulls.

    Elk are primarily grazers in spring and summer, but may become browsers feeding on woody vegetation in winter if grasses, sedges, and forbes are unavailable. Lichens are also consumed.

  • Predators and Defense
    Major predators include mountain lions, bears, and coyotes. One of the first calves born in the park in 2001 is thought to have been killed by a coyote.

  • Parasites
    On September 23, 2001, an adult female elk in the park was euthanized after showing neurological and physical signs consistent with meningial worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis). Meningial worm is usually carried passively in white-tailed deer. However, in nearly all other Cervidae, including elk, the meningial worm produces neurological problems that often result in death.


Links to other sites

References

Acknowledgements
  • Text
  • Photographs
    • Roger Barbour

  • Map development
  • Web page design & coding
    • Casandra Lloyd, University of Georgia, Athens
    • John Pickering, University of Georgia, Athens


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/70943adf-8589-40e9-8338-7ba862074b86 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/70943adf-8589-40e9-8338-7ba862074b86
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts

Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory

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Species Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758

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Regional Maps

CAVS : 1526 Taxon concept Cervus_elaphus last modified 2010-12-16 15:42:13.424

Species Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758

Red Deer

 

Taxonomic Decision for Synonymy

 

Distribution

States

New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia


Extra Distribution Information

Introduced from United Kingdom.


Note that conversion of the original AFD map of states, drainage basins and coastal and oceanic zones to IBRA and IMCRA regions may have produced errors. The new maps will be reviewed and corrected as updates occur. The maps may not indicate the entire distribution. See further details below.
IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)
drainage basins and coastal and oceanic zones (map not available)

IBRA

NSW, Qld, SA, Vic, WA: Australian Alps (AA), Avon Wheatbelt (AW), Brigalow Belt North (BBN), Brigalow Belt South (BBS), Central Mackay Coast (CMC), Cape York Peninsula (CYP), Desert Uplands (DEU), Einasleigh Uplands (EIU), Esperance Plains (ESP), Flinders (FLI), Geraldton Sandplains (GS), Jarrah Forest (JF), Mallee (MAL), Murray Darling Depression (MDD), Naracoorte Coastal Plain (NCP), NSW North Coast (NNC), Sydney Basin (SB), South East Coastal Plain (SCP), South East Corner (SEC), South Eastern Highlands (SEH), South Eastern Queensland (SEQ), Swan Coastal Plain (SWA), Victorian Midlands (VM), Victorian Volcanic Plain (VVP), Warren (WAR), Wet Tropics (WT), Yalgoo (YAL)

Original AFD Distribution Data

Australian Region

  • Australia
    • New South Wales: SE coastal
    • Queensland: NE coastal
    • South Australia: SE coastal
    • Victoria: SE coastal
    • Western Australia: SW coastal

Ecological Descriptors

Crepuscular, diurnal, folivore, gregarious, herbivore, terrestrial, territorial.

 

General References

Anderson, R. 1978. Gold on Four Feet.Commercial deer farming: a new rural industry of outstanding potential . Collingwood : R. Anderson & Assoc. 160 pp.

Anderson, R. 1979. Deer farming in Australia. Proceedings of the Post-graduate Committee of Veterinary Science University of Sydney 49 : 55-71

Bentley, A. 1978. An Introduction to the Deer of Australia with Special Reference to Victoria . Melbourne : R.A. Manning for the Koetong Trust Service Fund, Forests Comm., Vic. 350 pp.

Bentley, A. 1995. Red Deer Cervus elaphus . pp. 734-735 in Strahan, R. (ed.). The Mammals of Australia: The National Photographic Index of Australian Wildlife . Sydney : Reed New Holland 756 pp.

Bentley, A. 1998. An Introduction to the Deer of Australia . Melbourne : Australian Deer Research Foundation.

Clutton-Brock, T.H., Guinness, F.E. & Albon, S.D. 1982. Red Deer Behavior and Ecology of Two Sexes . Edinburgh : Edinburgh Univ. Press xxii 378 pp.

de Vos, A., Manville, R.H. & Van Gelder, R.G. 1956. Introduced mammals and their influence on native biota. Zoologica (New York) N.Y. 41 : 163-194

English, A.W. 1979. Veterinary aspects of deer farming in New South Wales. Proceedings of the Post-graduate Committee of Veterinary Science University of Sydney 49 : 127-202-1 pl.

Geist, V. 1999. Deer of the World . Shrewsbury : Swan Hill Press.

Gibb, J.A. & Flux, J.E.C. 1973. Mammals. pp. 334-371 in Williams, G.R. (ed.). The Natural History of New Zealand an Ecological Survey . Wellington : A.H. & A.W. Reed.

Haltenorth, T. 1963. Klassifikation der Säugetiere: Artiodactyla. Handbuch der Zoologie Berlin 8 (teil 1, lfg. 32): 1-167 pls 1-16

Jesser, P. 2005. Deer in Queensland. Pest Status Review. Brisbane : Land Protection, Department of Natural Resources and Mines.

Keep, J.M. 1979. The distribution of wild deer in Australia. Proceedings of the Post-graduate Committee of Veterinary Science University of Sydney 49 : 15-19 1 pl.

Long, J.L. 1972. Introduced birds and mammals in Western Australia. Agricultural Protection Board Western Australia Technical Service 1 : 1-30

Mitchell, B., Staines, B.W. & Welch, D. 1977. Ecology of Red Deer. A research review relevant to their management in Scotland . Cambridge : Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (Natural Environment Research Council) viii 74 pp. 13 pls.

Moriarty, A. 2004. The liberation, distribution and management of wild deer in Australia. Wildlife Research 31 : 291-299

Rolls, E.C. 1969. They All Ran Wild. The Story of Pests on the Land in Australia . Sydney : Angus & Robertson 444 pp. 21 pls.

Tuckwell, C. 1998. Australian Deer Industry Manual, Part 3: Classification and Species Selection . Canberra : Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation and Deer Industry Company.

Whitehead, G.K. 1972. Deer of the World . London : Constable xii 194 pp. 33 pls.

Whitehead, G.K. 1993. The Whitehead Encyclopedia of Deer . Shrewsbury : Swan Hill Press.

Wilson, P.R. 1979. Nutrition and reproduction of farmed deer. Proceedings of the Post-graduate Committee of Veterinary Science University of Sydney 49 : 95-103

 

Common Name References

ABRS 2001. Census of Australian Vertebrates. Australian Biological Resources Study. (Red Deer)

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
16-Dec-2010 16-Dec-2010 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)

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Last modified: Thursday, 16 December 2010 3:42:13 PM AEDT

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Following modified from North American Mammals, Smithsonian Institution
   
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://www.mnh.si.edu/mna/image_info.cfm?species_id=33

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cervus+elaphus+maral&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cervus+elaphus+maral&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cervus elaphus maral%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Cervus elaphus maral
Cervus elaphus maral
Maral Red Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1112 1882 [detail]
© 2012 Behnam Ghorbani

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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cervus+elaphus+scoticus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cervus+elaphus+scoticus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Cervus elaphus scoticus
Cervus elaphus scoticus
ID: 0000 0000 0215 3351 [detail]
Gonçalo M. Rosa
© 2015 Gonçalo M. Rosa

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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cervus+elaphus+bactrianus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cervus+elaphus+bactrianus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cervus elaphus bactrianus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

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Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bactrian Wapiti
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1337 [detail]
© 2013 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2116 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2117 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2118 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2119 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2120 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2121 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2122 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2123 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2124 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2125 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bactrian Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0718 0689 [detail]
© 2018 Simon J. Tonge

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cervus+elaphus+barbarus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cervus+elaphus+barbarus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Number of matches : 9
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cervus elaphus barbarus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1339 [detail]
© 2013 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1340 [detail]
© 2013 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1017 2438 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1017 2439 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1017 2440 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1017 2441 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1017 2442 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1017 2443 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1017 2444 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cervus+elaphus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Cervus+elaphus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Number of matches : 27
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Cervus elaphus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Cervus elaphus
Cervus elaphus
Red Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1350 [detail]
© 2013 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus
Cervus elaphus
Red Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1214 2740 [detail]
© 2014 Kristian Bell

Cervus elaphus
Cervus elaphus
Red Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1214 2741 [detail]
© 2014 Kristian Bell

Cervus elaphus
UCMP specimen card
ID: 0000 2222 6085 0095 [detail]
© 2016 University of California Museum of Paleontology

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bactrian Wapiti
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1337 [detail]
© 2013 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2116 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2117 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2118 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2119 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2120 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2121 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2122 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2123 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2124 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bokhara Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0817 2125 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Bactrian Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0718 0689 [detail]
© 2018 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1339 [detail]
© 2013 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 0113 1340 [detail]
© 2013 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1017 2438 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1017 2439 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1017 2440 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1017 2441 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1017 2442 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Cervus elaphus barbarus
Cervus elaphus barbarus
Barbary Deer
ID: 0000 0000 1017 2443 [detail]
© 2017 Simon J. Tonge

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

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