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Cheilotrema saturnum (Girard, 1858)
BLACK CROAKER
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Sciaenidae   Cheilotrema

Cheilotrema saturnum
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Cheilotrema saturnum

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Overview
Main identification features
  • oblong, compressed; mouth below
  • dark + pale bar and blotches
  • operculum: large black blotch
  • a: 2nd spine very long, heavy, 6-7
Body high, oblong, compressed; forehead profile oblique, snout pointed; mouth below; chin with 5 pores, no barbels; preopercle finely serrated on rear border; 14-20 rakers on first gill arch; dorsal XI, 25-28; anal II,6-7, 2nd spine heavy, as long as 1st ray; pectoral 17-18 rays, short, not reaching tip of pelvic; tail edge straight; scales rough except smooth around eye; 56-60 lateral line scales; inner 1/3 of soft dorsal and inner 3/4 of anal scaly.

Upper body dark grey to purplish to black, with coppery patches; belly silvery with dark dots; an indistinct pale bar at mid-body; an elongate black blotch on upper rear border of opercle; fins dark grey; juveniles with 3-4 dark stripes along upper body.

Size: 45 cm.

Habitat: caves and crevices near sandy bottoms, open bays and coasts.

Depth: 3-100 m.

California to southern Baja and the northern Gulf of California.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap).
Depth Range Max: 100 m.
Depth Range Min: 3 m.
Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs).
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=35; Southern limit=25; Western limit=-121; Eastern limit=-113; Latitudinal range=10; Longitudinal range=8.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: TEP non-endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 45 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; California province, primarily; Continent only; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Near Bottom; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • De la Cruz , J. , Galvan , F. , Abitia , L. A. , Rodriguez , J. and Gutierrez, F. J., 1994., Lista sistematica de los peces marinos de Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico). Systematic List of marine fishes from Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico)., Ciencias Marinas, 20:17-31.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Girard, C., 1858., Fishes. In General report upon zoology fo the several Pacific railrad routes, 1857., U. S. Senate Misc. Doc., (78):1-400.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Pondella II, D.J., Gintert, B.E., Cobb, J.R., Allen, L.G., 2005., Biogeography of the nearshore rocky-reef fishes at the southern and Baja California islands., Journal of Biogeography, 32:187-201.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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