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Empetrum nigrum L.
BLACK CROWBERRY
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Empetraceae   Empetrum

Empetrum nigrum
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Empetrum nigrum

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Empetrum nigrum
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Empetrum nigrum

Empetrum nigrum
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Empetrum nigrum

Empetrum nigrum
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Empetrum nigrum

Empetrum nigrum
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Empetrum nigrum

Empetrum nigrum
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Empetrum nigrum

Empetrum nigrum
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum ssp nigrum
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Empetrum nigrum ssp nigrum

Empetrum nigrum ssp hermaphroditum
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Empetrum nigrum ssp hermaphroditum
Empetrum nigrum ssp hermaphroditum
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Empetrum nigrum ssp hermaphroditum

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Alcyoniidae  Rhytisma empetri @ BPI (2)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Botryosphaeria hyperborea @ BPI (1)
Coleosporiaceae  Chrysomyxa empetri @ 191187K (1); 191191B (1); 191187B (1); 191191C (1); 191187A (1); 191187H (1); 191191E (1); 191191A (1); 191187C (1); 191187D (1); 191187G (1); 191191D (1); 191187I (1); 191187J (1); 191187E (1); 191187F (1); BPI (90)
Cordycipitaceae  Isaria empetri @ BPI (1)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium @ BPI (1)
Dothioraceae  Metasphaeria empetri @ BPI (3)
Exobasidiaceae  Exobasidium empetri @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Phaeangellina empetri @ 665089B (1); 665089C (1); 665089A (1)
Hyponectriaceae  Physalospora crepiniana @ BPI (1)

Physalospora empetri @ BPI (3)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Septoria empetri @ BPI (1)
Phaeosphaeriaceae  Leptosphaeria empetri @ BPI (1)
Pyronemataceae  Aleurina empetri @ BPI (2)
Rhytismataceae  Duplicaria empetri @ BPI (2)

Melasmia empetri @ BPI (16)
Sclerotiniaceae  Monilinia empetri @ BPI (6)

Sclerotinia empetri @ BPI (1)
_  Coleophoma empetri @ BPI (4)

Hysterodiscula empetri @ BPI (1)

Uredo empetri @ BPI (2)

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Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
   Top | See original

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=EMNI ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=EMNI
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=EMNI ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=EMNI
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=EMNI ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=EMNI
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Empetrum nigrum L.
black crowberry

Image of Empetrum nigrum

General Information
Symbol: EMNI
Group: Dicot
Family: Empetraceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Shrub
Subshrub
Native Status : AK   N
CAN   N
GL   N
L48   N
SPM   N
Characteristics
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Empetrum thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species . Northeast National Technical Center, Chester. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, CA, Berkeley, Regional Parks Botanic Garden at Tilden. June 5, 2003. Usage Requirements .

Steve Hurst. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . Denmark, Greenland. Usage Requirements .

©Richard A. Howard. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Richard A. Howard Photograph Collection . United States, NH, Mount Washington. Usage Requirements .

©Lindsey Koepke. United States, WA, Pierce Co., Mount Rainier National Park, Spray Park. August 23, 2005. Usage Requirements .

©Mark W. Skinner. United States, AK, Teller. August 15, 1990. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 479. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Dilleniidae
Order Ericales
Family Empetraceae – Crowberry family
Genus Empetrum L. – crowberry
Species Empetrum nigrum L. – black crowberry

Subordinate Taxa

The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Empetrum nigrum . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Plant is native (blue) Native Plant is introduced Introduced Plant is introduced Native and Introduced Related taxa legend Distribution of <i>
Empetrum nigrum</i>
L. ssp. <i>
hermaphroditum</i>
(Lange ex Hagerup) Böcher
Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum
black crowberry Distribution of <i>
Empetrum nigrum</i>
L. ssp. <i>
nigrum </i>
Empetrum nigrum ssp. nigrum
black crowberry

Legal Status

Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.
Michigan black crowberry Threatened
Minnesota black crowberry Endangered

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Alaska FAC
Arid West FAC
Northcentral & Northeast FAC
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FAC

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (EMNI)
CalPhotos (EMNI)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (EMNI)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (EMNI)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (EMNI)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (EMNI)
Native Plants Network (EMNI)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (EMNI)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Martin Minor Minor Low
Quinlan Low Moderate

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Martin
Quinlan Moderate Moderate

Sources

Martin, A.C., H.S. Zim, and A.L. Nelson. 1951. American wildlife and plants: A guide to wildlife food habits . Dover Publications. New York.
Quinlan, S.E., and S. Cuccarese. 2004. Native Alaskan and exotic plants used by wildlife . Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Anchorage.

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover
High Average 25-50% of diet Regular source of cover
Low 5-10% of diet Infrequently used as cover
Minor 2-5% of diet Sparsely used as cover
Moderate Average 10-25% of diet Occasional source of cover


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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Link to Flora of North America home
 
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FNA Vol. 8 Page 486, 487 , 488 , 489 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 8 | Ericaceae | Empetrum

1. Empetrum nigrum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1022. 1753.

Empetrum eamesii Fernald & Wiegand subsp. hermaphroditum (Hagerup) D. Löve; E. hermaphroditum Hagerup; E. nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum (Hagerup) Böcher; E. nigrum var. hermaphroditum (Hagerup) T. J. Sørensen

Branches green, brown, or reddish, distally glabrous, eglandular or glandular, sparsely white-tomentose. Leaves divergent, becoming reflexed; blade 2.5-7 mm. Flowers unisexual or bisexual (plants synoecious, sometimes polygamous, or dioecious); sepals greenish pink becoming reddish purple. Drupes black, opaque, 5-10 mm diam. Seeds light brown, 1.5-3 mm. 2 n = 26, 39, 52.

Flowering spring. Exposed, coastal bluffs and sphagnum bogs, windswept southern arctic and alpine tundra and open subalpine and boreal forests and mountain summits; 0-1900 m; Greenland; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Calif., Maine, Mich., Minn., N.H., N.Y., Oreg., Vt., Wash.; Europe; Asia.

All black-fruited plants of the genus in North America are here considered to be Empetrum nigrum in the broad sense. There is great variation within the species, and various names have been proposed. Boreal and arctic diploids (2 n = 26, E. Hultén 1968) with unisexual flowers, dioecious plants, have been treated as E. nigrum , and tetraploids (2 n = 52) with bisexual flowers, synoecious plants, as E. hermaphroditum .

Empetrum nigrum is typified on European, dioecious, diploid plants, and in this strict sense, there has been a question whether the name should be applied to North American plants (Á. Löve and D. Löve 1959) in areas with synoecious tetraploids, where diploids were thought to be absent.

Dioecious, diploid, black-fruited crowberries are now well known from Maine, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia (J. Maunder, pers. comm.; P. Morisset, pers. comm.). There appears to be some ecological separation between the dioecious Empetrum nigrum and the synoecious E. nigrum ; the dioecious plants in Newfoundland are reported to be replaced by the synoecious ones at higher elevations or in very exposed localities (J. Maunder, pers. comm.).

Dioecious plants have been long known in the Pacific Northwest (J. A. Calder and R. L. Taylor 1968) and Alaska (E. Hultén 1968), and diploids have now been confirmed for the Cascade Range, Washington; Prince Rupert, British Columbia; and the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska (V. Mirré 2004). Some of these western diploids have chloroplast DNA more closely related to South American accessions (diploid Empetrum rubrum ) than to any Northern Hemisphere Empetrum investigated with chloroplast trn S- trnf M and trn S- trn G sequences (M. Popp et al., unpubl.). The nuclear sequence data show a more complex pattern wherein the alleles found in the South American accessions represent a subset of the alleles found in the Northern Hemisphere accessions (nuclear low copy RPB2 and RPC2 sequences).

Empetrum hermaphroditum , a name in prominent usage, is typified on a Greenlandic, synoecious tetraploid, and this name and combinations of it have been applied to virtually all black-fruited synoecious plants in North America and wherever else black-fruited, synoecious crowberries are found (cf. Á. Löve and D. Löve 1959). In Europe, in addition to the diploids, there are synoecious tetraploids of E. nigrum .

V. Mirré (2004) concluded that tetraploid synoecious plants have arisen multiple times from different combinations of diploids resulting in a large pool of unstructured genetic variation. We conclude that synoecious tetraploids do not necessarily represent a distinct lineage and must, for the present, be subsumed by Empetrum nigrum as understood here.

The population of Empetrum nigrum reported from Montauk Point, Long Island, New York, has been extirpated (S. E. Clemants, pers. comm.).

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Empetrum+nigrum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Empetrum+nigrum&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 26
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Empetrum nigrum%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 1335 3153 0671 0099 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2002 California Academy of Sciences

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 1335 3153 0671 0100 [detail]
Unknown (CAS)
© 2002 California Academy of Sciences

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 1335 3153 0671 0101 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2002 California Academy of Sciences

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
ID: 0000 0000 0105 0678 [detail]
© 2005 Louis-M. Landry

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
ID: 0000 0000 0408 1724 [detail]
© 2008 Louis-M. Landry

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
ID: 0000 0000 0408 1725 [detail]
© 2008 Louis-M. Landry

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
ID: 0000 0000 0506 1853 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Crowberry
ID: 1342 3162 2233 0057 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2007 California Academy of Sciences

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Crowberry
ID: 1342 3162 2233 0058 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2007 California Academy of Sciences

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
ID: 0000 0000 0510 1837 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
ID: 0000 0000 0510 1838 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
ID: 0000 0000 0510 1835 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
ID: 0000 0000 0414 0108 [detail]
© 2014 Michael Uhler

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 0000 0000 0414 0109 [detail]
© 2014 Michael Uhler

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 0000 0000 0414 0110 [detail]
© 2014 Michael Uhler

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 0000 0000 0414 0111 [detail]
© 2014 Michael Uhler

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 0000 0000 0414 0112 [detail]
© 2014 Michael Uhler

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 0000 0000 0714 1376 [detail]
© 2014 Wynn Anderson

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 0000 0000 0315 2354 [detail]
© 2015 Dana York

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 0000 0000 0315 2356 [detail]
© 2015 Dana York

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 0000 0000 0315 2357 [detail]
© 2015 Dana York

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 0000 0000 0315 2358 [detail]
© 2015 Dana York

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 0000 0000 0315 2359 [detail]
© 2015 Dana York

Empetrum nigrum
Empetrum nigrum
Black Crowberry
ID: 0000 0000 0315 2360 [detail]
© 2015 Dana York

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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