Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes, 1828)
SNOWY GROUPER
  Fish   Serranidae   Epinephelus


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes , 1828)

Snowy grouper Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
  More on author: Valenciennes .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 30 - 525 m (Ref. 5222 ), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 5222 ).   Subtropical; 41°N - 27°S, 98°W - 34°W (Ref. 5222 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951 ) to Massachusetts, USA to southern Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 54.0 , range 47 - ? cm
Max length : 122 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340 ); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217 ); max. published weight: 30.0 kg (Ref. 5222 ); max. reported age: 27 years (Ref. 3090 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-15; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 9. Distinguished by the following characteristics: Dark margin on spiny dorsal fin and dark saddle on caudal peduncle that extends below lateral line (Ref. 26938 ); juveniles with pale yellow caudal and pectoral fins; black saddle blotch on the caudal peduncle reaching below lateral line; depth of body contained 2.4-2.8 times in SL; head length 2.2-2.4 times in SL; convex interorbital area, width less than or subequal to eye diameter; enlarged serrae at angle of preopercle; distinctly convex upper edge of operculum; posterior nostrils 2-5 times larger than anterior nostrils (Ref. 89707 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults occur well offshore on rocky bottoms. Juveniles may be found inshore and are often reported from the northeastern coast of the U.S (Ref. 89707 ). Adults feed on fishes, gastropods, cephalopods, and brachyuran crustaceans (Ref. 5222 ). Valuable commercial food fish (Ref. 26938 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

The size (76.7-109 cm) and age (8-29 yr) of 97 male specimens and the capture of two specimens undergoing sex change provided conclusive evidence that snowy grouper are protogynous hermaphrodites (Ref. 45886 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Craig, M.T. and P.A. Hastings , 2007. A molecular phylogeny of the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae (Serranidae) with revised classification of the epinephelini. Ichthyol. Res. 54:1-17. (Ref. 83414 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2bd+4bd); Date assessed: 21 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial FAO(fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 14.8 - 23.7, mean 19.5 (based on 93 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.01218 - 0.02063), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.0   ±0.58 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.07-0.09; tmax=27). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei Fish Forum
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