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Equisetum L.
HORSETAIL
Life   Plantae   Pteridophyta   Equisetaceae

Equisetum hyemale, Horsetail
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Equisetum hyemale, Horsetail

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Equisetum arvense
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 4
Equisetum arvense
Equisetum arvense, whole plant - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Equisetum arvense, whole plant - unspecified

Equisetum arvense
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Equisetum arvense
Equisetum arvense
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Equisetum arvense

Equisetum arvense
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Equisetum arvense
Equisetum arvense, whole plant - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Equisetum arvense, whole plant - unspecified

Equisetum hyemale, whole plant - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Equisetum hyemale, whole plant - unspecified
Equisetum hyemale
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Equisetum hyemale

Equisetum hyemale
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Equisetum hyemale
Equisetum hyemale
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Equisetum hyemale

Equisetum hyemale, whole plant - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Equisetum hyemale, whole plant - unspecified
Equisetum hyemale
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Equisetum hyemale

Equisetum arvense
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Equisetum arvense
Equisetum arvense
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Equisetum arvense

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Cixiidae  Cixius cultus @ AMNH_IZC (10)

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Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=EQUIS ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=EQUIS
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=EQUIS ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=EQUIS
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=EQUIS ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=EQUIS
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Equisetum L.
horsetail

Image of Equisetum

General Information
Symbol: EQUIS
Group: Horsetail
Family: Equisetaceae
Duration:  
Growth Habit :  
Native Status : AK   N,N?
CAN   N
GL   N
L48   N
SPM   N
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Equisetum thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Jennifer Anderson. United States, IA, Scott Co., Davenport, Nahant Marsh. 2002. Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Division Equisetophyta – Horsetails
Class Equisetopsida
Order Equisetales
Family Equisetaceae – Horsetail family
Genus Equisetum L. – horsetail

Subordinate Taxa

The Plants Database includes the following 19 species of Equisetum . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Plant is native (blue) Native Plant is introduced Introduced Plant is introduced Native and Introduced Related taxa legend Distribution of <i>
Equisetum arvense</i>
L.
Equisetum arvense
field horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum ×dycei</i>
C.N. Page [excluded]
Equisetum ×dycei
Distribution of <i>
Equisetum ×ferrissii</i>
Clute (pro sp.) [<i>
hyemale × laevigatum</i>
]
Equisetum ×ferrissii [ hyemale × laevigatum ]
Distribution of <i>
Equisetum fluviatile</i>
L.
Equisetum fluviatile
water horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum ×font-queri</i>
Rothm. [<i>
palustre × telmateia</i>
]
Equisetum ×font-queri [ palustre × telmateia ]
horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum giganteum</i>
L.
Equisetum giganteum
giant horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum hyemale</i>
L.
Equisetum hyemale
scouringrush horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum laevigatum</i>
A. Braun
Equisetum laevigatum
smooth horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum ×litorale</i>
Kühlewein ex Rupr. (pro sp.) [<i>
arvense × fluviatile</i>
]
Equisetum ×litorale [ arvense × fluviatile ]
horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum ×mackaii</i>
(Newm.) Brichan [<i>
hyemale × variegatum</i>
]
Equisetum ×mackaii [ hyemale × variegatum ]
horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum myriochaetum</i>
Schltdl. & Cham. [excluded]
Equisetum myriochaetum
Mexican giant horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum ×nelsonii</i>
(A.A. Eaton) Schaffn. (pro sp.) [<i>
laevigatum × variegatum</i>
]
Equisetum ×nelsonii [ laevigatum × variegatum ]
horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum palustre</i>
L.
Equisetum palustre
marsh horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum pratense</i>
Ehrh.
Equisetum pratense
meadow horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum ramosissimum</i>
Desf.
Equisetum ramosissimum
branched scouringrush Distribution of <i>
Equisetum scirpoides</i>
Michx.
Equisetum scirpoides
dwarf scouringrush Distribution of <i>
Equisetum sylvaticum</i>
L.
Equisetum sylvaticum
woodland horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum telmateia</i>
Ehrh.
Equisetum telmateia
giant horsetail Distribution of <i>
Equisetum variegatum</i>
Schleich. ex F. Weber & D. Mohr
Equisetum variegatum
variegated scouringrush

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
CalPhotos (EQUIS)
Flora of North America (EQUIS)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (EQUIS)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (EQUIS)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Martin Low Minor Low

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Martin

Sources

Martin, A.C., H.S. Zim, and A.L. Nelson. 1951. American wildlife and plants: A guide to wildlife food habits . Dover Publications. New York.

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover
High Average 25-50% of diet Regular source of cover
Low 5-10% of diet Infrequently used as cover
Minor 2-5% of diet Sparsely used as cover
Moderate Average 10-25% of diet Occasional source of cover


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 2 | Equisetaceae

1. Equisetum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1061. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 484, 1754.

Horsetail, scouring rush, prêle [Latin equis, horse, and seta, bristle, referring to the coarse black roots of E . fluviatile ]

Richard L. Hauke

Equisetum ramosissimum

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Plants perennial, rhizomatous. Aerial stems annual or perennial. Stems with hollow center and series of small carinal (under the ridges) and larger vallecular (under the valleys) canals. Leaves in whorls, fused part of length into sheaths. Stem ridges traversing length of internode and continuing into sheaths, terminating in sheath teeth. Branches when present borne at nodes, erupting through base of subtending sheath. Cones terminal on green stems or, in some species, terminating special, reproductive, brown stems, composed of whorls of peltate sporophylls; cone apices rounded or sharply pointed; sporangia 5--10 per sporophyll, pendent, attached to inner surface of sporophylls, elongate, dehiscing longitudinally. x =108.

Species 15 (11 in the flora): nearly worldwide.

Equisetum occurs in moist places such as riverbanks, lakeshores, roadsides, ditches, seepage areas, meadows, marshes, and wet woodlands. Aerial stems of Equisetum vary considerably in habit and appearance, even on individual plants, because of environmentally induced modifications affecting height and branching. Many taxonomically trivial varieties and forms have been named. For an extended discussion of this, see R.L. Hauke (1966). Four widespread, named hybrids are treated in the key and fully described below.

In species descriptions and in the key, length and width are given for the leaf sheath, excluding the free teeth. If the length and width of flattened sheaths are approximately equal and the sides are straight, the sheath is more or less square in face view, i.e., about as long as broad; if the length is greater than the width and the sides are straight, the sheath is more or less elongate in face view, i.e., longer than broad; if the length is greater than the width and the sides are slightly convex, the sheath is elliptic in face view. Stomates are usually visible at 20× magnification.

Reticulation in Equisetum is summarized in the reticulograms, which show the known and expected hybrids in North America. Most of those in Equisetum subg. Equisetum are still unknown in North America, but they should be sought, especially north of 45° N latitude. According to W.J. Cody and D.M. Britton (1989), E . × font-queri occurs rarely in British Columbia and materials possibly representing E . × arcticum Rothmaler have been taken in the Richardson Mountain region of Mackenzie. R.L. Hauke (1978) cited collections of E . × font-queri from British Columbia and California.

SELECTED REFERENCES

Hauke, R.L. 1966. A systematic study of Equisetum arvense . Nova Hedwigia 13: 81--109. Hauke, R.L. 1979. Equisetum ramosissimum in North America. Amer. Fern J. 69: 1--5.

(Key to species of Equisetum)

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Equisetum+sp.&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Equisetum+sp.&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 4
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Equisetum sp.%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Equisetum sp.
Equisetum sp.
Horsetail, Scouring Rush
ID: 8253 3202 0179 0006 [detail]
Beatrice F. Howitt
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Equisetum sp.
Equisetum sp.
ID: 1338 3161 0873 0066 [detail]
Dr. Robert T. and Margaret Orr
© 2004 California Academy of Sciences

Equisetum sp.
Equisetum sp.
Horsetails
ID: 1336 3162 1813 0011 [detail]
Jo-Ann Ordano
© 2005 California Academy of Sciences

Equisetum sp.
Equisetum sp.
Horsetail
ID: 6666 6666 0514 0082 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2014 California Academy of Sciences

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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