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Gnathophis cinctus (Garman, 1899)
HARDTAIL CONGER
Hard-tail conger

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Congridae   Gnathophis

Gnathophis cinctus
www.fao.org Copyright Michel Lamboeuf · 0
Gnathophis cinctus

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Overview
Main identification features Head pointed, snout long, overhanging, with keel along underside; eye large, well back on head; mouth ~ horizontal, top lip with low flange; teeth on top jaw in bands, of similar size ; front nostril tubular, rear nostril a hole immediately before eye; lateral line complete; top of gill opening below top of pectoral fin base; pectorals long, pointed, narrow base; dorsal and anal fin rays segmented; dorsal fin origin over rear end of pectoral fin; dorsal and anal fins confluent with tail fin; tail >60% of total length, stiff, with small fin.

Uniform pale grey-brown.

Size: 42 cm.

Habitat: burrows in loose sand.

Depth: 10-370 m.

California to Peru, including the central Gulf of California and the Galapagos.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 370 m.
Depth Range Min: 10 m.
Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); bony fishes; octopus/squid/cuttlefish.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=42; Longitudinal range=40.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Sand & gravel; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Soft bottom only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 42 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); TEP endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versiˇn 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .á Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservaciˇn Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Garman, S., 1899., The Fishes. In: Reports of an exploration off the west coasts of Mexico, Central and South America, and off the Galapagos Islands, ... by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer "Albatross," during 1891. L.C.Z.L. Tannar, U.S.N. commanding XXVI., Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 24:432pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., BÚarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Raju, S. N., 1985., Congrid Eels of the Eastern Pacific and Key to their Leptocephali., NOAA Tech. Rept., \.
  • Wade, C.B., 1946., Two new genera and five new species of apodal fishes from the eastern Pacific., Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, 9(7):181-213.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Gnathophis cinctus (Garman , 1899)

Hardtail conger Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Gnathophis cinctus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Gnathophis cinctus (Hardtail conger) Gnathophis cinctus
Picture by Boyle, K.S.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes (Eels and morays) > Congridae (Conger and garden eels) > Congrinae
Etymology: Gnathophis: Greek, gnathos = jaw + Greek, ophis = serpent (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Garman .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 9 - 366 m (Ref. 96339 ).   Tropical; 37°N -

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Peru.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 42.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850 )

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A soft bottom inhabitant. Reported to burrow into loose sand, and appears to be fairly resistant to chemical preparations used for collecting fish (Ref. 2850 ). Bottom feeding predators devour conger eels when encountered in the open (Ref. 4525 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Smith, D.G. , 1995. Congridae. Congrios. p. 1026-1035. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9292 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 21 May 2007

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 9.4 - 20.1, mean 14 (based on 106 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00063 (0.00028 - 0.00142), b=3.19 (3.00 - 3.38), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.2   ±0.73 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .

Entered by Garilao, Cristina V. Modified by Garilao, Cristina V. Fish Forum
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