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Halichoeres nicholsi (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)
SPINSTER WRASSE
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Labridae   Halichoeres

Halichoeres nicholsi
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Halichoeres nicholsi

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Halichoeres nicholsi
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Halichoeres nicholsi
Halichoeres nicholsi
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Halichoeres nicholsi

Halichoeres nicholsi
© Copyright Roger Steene, 2006 · 0
Halichoeres nicholsi
Halichoeres nicholsi
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Halichoeres nicholsi
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • initial phase : white + dark stripe and bar
  • terminal phase : bluey-grey + dark bar and yellow cheek
Dorsal rays IX, 11; anal rays III, 12; pectoral rays 13; lateral line with 28 pored scales; jaw teeth caniniform, 2 pairs of enlarged, curved canines at front of each jaw; rear of upper jaw with prominent forward-directed canine on each side.

Initial phase light green on back, whitish below; a broad diffuse blackish stripe along middle of side, joined by short blackish bar below base of anterior part of dorsal fin; terminal phase mainly bluish or green with broad blackish bar behind head and bright yellow spot just above pectoral fin; juveniles whitish to yellowish with irregular blackish stripes and blotches on side, and relatively large ocellated black spot on middle of dorsal fin.


Size: to 38 cm.

Habitat: rocky and rubble bottoms.

Depth: 0-82 m.

Gulf of California to northern Peru, also the Revillagigedos, Cocos, Galapagos and Malpelo.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 82 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins; mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves; mobile benthic worms; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs).
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=32; Southern limit=-6; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=38; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Sand & gravel; Rocks; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef and soft bottom.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 38 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); TEP endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Aburto-Oropeza , O. and Balart, E. F., 2001., Community structure of reef fish in several habitats of a rocky reef in the Gulf of California., Marine Ecology, 22:283-305.
  • Acosta Salmón , H. and Martínez Fernández, E., 2000., Propuesta preliminar ... de concha nacar (Pteria sterna Gould, 1851) en la Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México. En Aburto Oropeza, O. y C. A. Sánchez Ortiz (Eds.). Recursos arrecifales del Golfo de California, …., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:95-106.
  • Baldwin , C. C. and McCosker, J. E., 2001., Wrasses of the Galápagos Islands, with the description of a new deepwater species of Halichoeres (Perciformes: Labridae)., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 49(Supplement 1):89-100.
  • Breder, C.M. Jr., 1936., Scientific results of the second oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1926. Heterosomata to Pediculati from Panama to Lower California., Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ., 2(3):1-56.
  • Bussing, W.A., 1987., Los peces de la familia Labridae de la Costa Pacífica de Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 33:81-98.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Edgar, G.J. Banks, S., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M. and Martínez, C., 2004., Regional biogeography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago., Journal of Biogeography, 31:1107-1124.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Gilbert, C.H., 1890., A preliminary report on the fishes collected by the steamer "Albatross" on the Pacific coast of North America during the year 1889, with descriptions of twelve new genera and ninety-two new species., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 13:49-126.
  • Gotshall, D.W., 1996., Fishes of Rocas Alijos. In Rocas Alijos. Ed. R. W. Schmieder. Cornell Expeditions., Kluwer Academic Publishers: 347-354.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Bollman, C.H., 1890., Descriptions of new species of fishes collected at the Galapagos Islands and along the coast of the United States of Colombia, 1887-88, by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer 'Albatross'., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 12:149-183.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1898., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part II., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1241-2183.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Gilbert, C.H., 1882., Notes on a collection of fishes made by Lieut. Henry E. Nichols, U.S.N., on the west coast of Mexico, with descriptions of new species., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 4:225-233.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1928., The marine fishes of Panama. Part III., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:709-1045.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Fishes collected from the Revillagigedo Islands during the 1954-1958 cruises of the "Marijean."., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 4:10pp.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Mexican shore and pelagic fishes collected from Acapulco to Cape San Lucas during the 1957 cruise of the "Marijean"., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 3:18pp.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Sánchez Ortíz , C. , Arreola Robles , J. L. , Aburto Oropeza , O. and Cortés Hernández, M., 1997., Peces de arrecife en la región de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:189-200.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Victor , B. C. , Wellington , G. M. , Robertson , D. R. and Ruttenberg, B., 2001., The effect of the EL Niño-Southern oscilation event in the distribution of reef-associated labrid fishes in the Eastern Pacific ocean., Bull. Mar. Sci., 69:279-288.
  • Victor, B. C. and Wellington, G. M., 2000., Endemism and the pelagic larval duration of reef fishes in the eastern Pacific Ocean., Marine Ecology Progress Series, 205:241-248.
  • Victor, B. C., 1986., Durtation of the planktonic larval stage of one hundred species of Pacific and Atlantic wrasses (family Labridae)., Marine Biology, 90:317-326.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.
  • Wellington, G.M. and Robertson, D. R., 2001., Variation in larval life-history traits among reef fishes across the Isthmus of Panama., Marine Biology, 138:11-22.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Halichoeres nicholsi (Jordan & Gilbert , 1882)

Spinster wrasse Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Halichoeres nicholsi   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Google image Image of Halichoeres nicholsi (Spinster wrasse) Halichoeres nicholsi
Male picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Labridae (Wrasses) > Corinae
Etymology: Halichoeres: Greek, als, alis = salt + Greek, choiros = pig (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 53 m (Ref. 9311 ), usually 3 - 27 m (Ref. 9311 ).   Tropical; 32°N - 1°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Panama, including the Galapagos Islands.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9311 ); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Body moderately slender and compressed; head somewhat small and pointed; teeth caniniform, enlarged, and somewhat crooked, two anterior pairs in each jaw; posterior end of upper jaw with one protruding, forward directed canine on each side; dorsal fin continuous, with 9 spines; lateral line with 28 scales; body blue green, with a dark, vertical bar near posterior edge of pectoral fin, preceded by a very marked yellow spot; all fins except pectorals, blue, speckled with red or light colored spots and stripes (Ref. 55763 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found over sand and gravel bottoms near coral reefs. Adults are solitary but juveniles form aggregations, sometimes with other species of wrasses. Feeds on mollusks, brittle stars, sea urchins and crabs. Hides under the sand to sleep and to seek shelter, in cases of danger.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Westneat, Mark | Collaborators

Gomon, M.F. , 1995. Labridae. Viejas, doncellasas, señoritas. p. 1201-1225. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9311 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 23 May 2007

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 20.6 - 28.5, mean 25.9 (based on 62 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00471 - 0.02125), b=3.08 (2.91 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.0   ±0.61 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .

Entered by Garilao, Cristina V. Modified by Bailly, Nicolas Fish Forum
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