Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. K. Schneid.
OSAGE ORANGE
  Dicotyledoneae   Moraceae   Maclura

Maclura pomifera, Osage Orange
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Maclura pomifera, Osage Orange

Click on map or images to enlarge.
 
Maclura pomifera, Osage Orange Tree Fruit
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 7
Maclura pomifera, Osage Orange Tree Fruit

Maclura pomifera
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Maclura pomifera

Maclura pomifera
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Maclura pomifera

Maclura pomifera
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Maclura pomifera

Maclura pomifera
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Maclura pomifera
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IDnature guides
Names
Scientific source:

Supported by
Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Diplodia compressa @ BPI (1)

Diplodia maclurae @ BPI (1)

Phyllosticta maclurae @ BPI (3)

Sphaeropsis maclurae @ BPI (11)

Sphaeropsis malorum @ BPI (1)

Sphaeropsis @ BPI (1)
Coccidae  Parthenolecanium corni @ MEMU_ENT (3)

Pulvinaria vitis @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Derbidae  Cedusa @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Diaspididae  Diaspidiotus ancylus @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Diaspidiotus forbesi @ MEMU_ENT (5)

Diaspidiotus juglansregiae @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Diaspidiotus perniciosus @ MEMU_ENT (5)

Melanaspis tenebricosa @ CSCA_TCN (1)

Velataspis dentata @ MEMU_ENT (1)
Diatrypaceae  Diatrype maclurae @ BPI (1)
Dothideaceae  Dothidea collecta @ BPI (1)
Hydnaceae  Hydnum omnivorum @ BPI (1)
Hysteriaceae  Hysterographium @ BPI (1)
Lophiostomataceae  Lophiostoma triseptatum @ BPI (2)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Cercospora maclurae @ 438007B (1); 438007A (1); BPI (2)

Ovularia maclurae @ BPI (7)
Nectriaceae  Fusarium roseum @ BPI (1)

Nectria cinnabarina @ BPI (2)

Tubercularia vulgaris @ BPI (1)
Patellariaceae  Tryblidiella rufula @ BPI (7)
Physaraceae  Badhamia @ BPI (2)
Polyporaceae  Poria @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Irpex obliquus @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Aleurodiscus lapponicus @ BPI (1)
Stictidaceae  Stictis mollis @ BPI (1)
Xylariaceae  Hypoxylon rubiginosum @ BPI (2)
_  Aplosporella maclurae @ BPI (3)

Aplosporella minor @ BPI (4)

Sporidesmium maclurae @ BPI (6)

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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/maclura/pomifera.htm

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Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C.K. Schneid.
Osage-orange

Image of Maclura pomifera

General Information
Symbol: MAPO
Group: Dicot
Family: Moraceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Shrub
Tree
Native Status : CAN   I
L48   N
Characteristics
Fact Sheet (pdf) (doc) Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

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©J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). United States, MO, Saint Louis, Missouri Botanical Garden. October 14, 2002. Usage Requirements .

Steve Hurst. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . United States, FL, Culter. Usage Requirements .

©Jeff McMillian. Provided by Almost Eden . United States, KS. Usage Requirements .

W.G. Baxter. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, KS. 1939. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

W.D. Brush. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. Usage Requirements .

W.H. Shaffer. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, DC, Washington, Soldiers Home. 1936. Usage Requirements .

G.B. Sudworth. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MD. 1908. Usage Requirements .

©Robin R. Buckallew. United States, TX, Lewisville. Usage Requirements .

©Rebecca Weller. TreesForMe . United States, TX, Collin Co., Oak Point Nature Preserve. February 5, 2012. Usage Requirements .

©Rebecca Weller. TreesForMe . United States, TX, Collin Co., Oak Point Nature Preserve. February 5, 2012. Usage Requirements .

©Rebecca Weller. TreesForMe . United States, TX, Collin Co., Oak Point Nature Preserve. February 5, 2012. Usage Requirements .

©Rebecca Weller. TreesForMe . United States, TX, Collin Co., Oak Point Nature Preserve. February 5, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. May 3, 2012. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. October 31, 2011. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. October 31, 2011. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. November 1, 2011. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. November 1, 2011. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. November 1, 2011. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. November 1, 2011. Usage Requirements .

Doug Goldman. Provided by USDA NRCS National Plants Data Team (NPDT) . United States, NC, Guilford Co., Greensboro. November 1, 2011. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 632. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
IOPO Ioxylon pomiferum Raf., orth. var.
TOPO2 Toxylon pomiferum Raf.

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Hamamelididae
Order Urticales
Family Moraceae – Mulberry family
Genus Maclura Nutt. – maclura
Species Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C.K. Schneid. – Osage-orange

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Arid West UPL
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FACU
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont UPL
Great Plains FACU
Midwest FACU
Northcentral & Northeast FACU
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast UPL

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (MAPO)
CalPhotos (MAPO)
Flora of North America (MAPO)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (IOPO)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (MAPO)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (TOPO2)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (MAPO)
Kemper Center for Home Gardening (MAPO)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (MAPO)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (MAPO)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (MAPO)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (MAPO)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (MAPO)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (MAPO)
Related Websites
USDA Forest Service-Silvics of North America (MAPO)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Gee Moderate
Martin Minor Minor

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Gee
Martin

Sources

Martin, A.C., H.S. Zim, and A.L. Nelson. 1951. American wildlife and plants: A guide to wildlife food habits . Dover Publications. New York.
Gee, K.L., M.D. Porter, S. Demarais, F.C. Bryant, and G.V. Vreede. 1994. White-tailed deer: Their foods and management in the Cross Timbers . Ardmore.

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover
High Average 25-50% of diet Regular source of cover
Low 5-10% of diet Infrequently used as cover
Minor 2-5% of diet Sparsely used as cover
Moderate Average 10-25% of diet Occasional source of cover


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1. Maclura pomifera (Rafinesque) C. K. Schneider, Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 806. 1906.

Osage-orange, hedge-apple, bois d'arc

Ioxylon pomiferum Rafinesque, Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 2: 118. 1817; I . aurantiacum (Nuttall) Rafinesque; Maclura aurantiaca Nuttall

Trees , to 20 m. Bark dark orange-brown, shallowly furrowed, ridges flat, often peeling into long, thin strips. Branchlets greenish yellow, becoming orange-brown; thorns stout, straight, to 1.5 cm, usually lateral to spur branch, spur branches often paired. Buds often paired, larger one red-brown, globose, 1.5-2 mm; scales ciliate; leaf scars half round, bundle scars arranged in oval. Leaves: stipules lanceolate, 1.5-2 mm, pubescent and long-ciliate; petiole 1-2.5 cm, pubescent. Leaf blade 4-12 × 2-6 cm, base rounded, apex acuminate; surfaces abaxially pale, glabrate, midrib and veins pubescent, adaxially lustrous, glabrous, midrib somewhat pubescent. Staminate inflorescences clustered on lateral spur branches; peduncle 1-1.5 cm, pubescent; heads globose or cylindric, 1.3-2.3 cm; pedicels 2-10 mm, glabrate. Pistillate inflorescences: peduncle 2-2.5 mm, glabrous or pubescent; heads globose, sessile on obconic receptacle, to 1.5 cm diam. Staminate flowers: sepals distinct, yellow-green, ca. 1 mm, apex acute, pubescent; filaments ca. 2 mm, closely appressed to sepals, flattened. Pistillate flowers: sepals green, obovate, 3 mm, enclosing and closely appressed to ovary, hoodlike, ciliate near tip; ovary ovoid, compressed, ca. 1 mm; style base green, ca. 3 mm, branches 4-6 mm, glabrous; stigma yellowish, papillose. Syncarps yellow-green to green, spheric, surface irregular, exuding milky sap when broken, peduncle short, glabrous or pubescent; achenes completely covered by accescent, thickened calyx lobes and deeply embedded in receptacle. Seeds cream colored, oval to oblong, 8-12 × 5-6 mm, base truncate or rounded with 1-3 minute points, margins with narrow groove, apex rounded, mucronate; surfaces minutely striated or pitted.

Flowering spring. Thickets; 0-1500 m; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Maclura pomifera is native to southwestern Arkansas, southeastern Oklahoma, and Texas; it is introduced and naturalized elsewhere in the United States. Collections in California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Washington appear to represent isolated escapes.

Maclura pomifera has been widely used in fencerows on farms and along roadways in the midwest and eastern states as windbreaks and wildlife shelter.

The Comanches used Maclura pomifera as an eye medication (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Following modified from CalPhotos
   
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Maclura+pomifera&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Maclura+pomifera&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 33
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Maclura pomifera%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange
ID: 0000 0000 1102 1037 [detail]
© 2002 University of California Museum of Paleontology

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osageorange
ID: 8120 3181 4564 0126 [detail]
Charles Webber
© 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage-Orange
ID: 0000 0000 1102 0645 [detail]
© 2002 John White

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage-Orange
ID: 0000 0000 1102 0646 [detail]
© 2002 John White

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage-Orange
ID: 0000 0000 1102 0647 [detail]
© 2002 John White

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange (fruit)
ID: 1338 3152 3388 0061 [detail]
J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan
© 2008 California Academy of Sciences

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange
ID: 0000 0000 0608 1640 [detail]
© 2008 Jason E. Willand

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange
ID: 0000 0000 0608 1641 [detail]
© 2008 Jason E. Willand

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange
ID: 0000 0000 0608 1642 [detail]
© 2008 Jason E. Willand

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange
ID: 0000 0000 0710 1511 [detail]
© 2010 Jean Pawek

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
ID: 0000 0000 0716 3388 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
ID: 0000 0000 0716 3389 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
ID: 0000 0000 0716 3390 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
ID: 0000 0000 0716 3391 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
ID: 0000 0000 0716 3392 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
ID: 0000 0000 0816 0585 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange
ID: 0000 0000 0916 2546 [detail]
© 2016 Steve Matson

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange
ID: 0000 0000 0916 2547 [detail]
© 2016 Steve Matson

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange
ID: 0000 0000 0916 2548 [detail]
© 2016 Steve Matson

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange
ID: 0000 0000 0916 2549 [detail]
© 2016 Steve Matson

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange
ID: 0000 0000 0916 2550 [detail]
© 2016 Steve Matson

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange
ID: 0000 0000 0916 2551 [detail]
© 2016 Steve Matson

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange
ID: 0000 0000 0916 2552 [detail]
© 2016 Steve Matson

Maclura pomifera
Maclura pomifera
Osage Orange
ID: 0000 0000 0717 2673 [detail]
© 2017 Steve Matson

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