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Monarda fistulosa L.
WILD BERGAMOT
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Lamiaceae   Monarda

Monarda fistulosa, Bee-balm
© Copyright Sheryl Pollock 2011 · 8
Monarda fistulosa, Bee-balm

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Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Monarda fistulosa

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Andrenidae  Pseudopanurgus parvus @ AMNH_BEE (7)
Aphididae  Aphis ( @ CSUC_TCN (2); NCSU_ENT (17)
Apidae  Anthophora terminalis @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Bombus affinis @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Bombus appositus @ AMNH_BEE (1); BBSL (1)

Bombus borealis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus centralis @ BBSL (2)

Bombus citrinus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus fervidus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus griseocollis @ CUIC_ENT (1); EMEC (2)

Bombus mixtus @ BBSL (1)

Bombus pensylvanicus @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Bombus rufocinctus @ BBSL (2)

Bombus ternarius @ AMNH_BEE (1); BBSL (2)

Bombus terricola @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Bombus vagans @ AMNH_BEE (1); BBSL (18)

Melissodes bimaculata @ AMNH_BEE (1); BBSL (2)
Cicadellidae  Empoasca erigeron @ III (1)

Empoasca fabae @ III (1)

Empoasca radiata @ III (7)
Coccinellidae  Coccinella septempunctata @ I_LB (1)

Hippodamia convergens @ I_LB (2)
Erysiphaceae  Erysiphe cichoracearum @ BPI (3)
Halictidae  Augochlorella striata @ BBSL (1)

Dufourea monardae @ AMNH_BEE (7); BBSL (5); CUIC_ENT (3)

Lasioglossum anomalum @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Lasioglossum laevissimum @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Lasioglossum leucocomum @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Megachilidae  Heriades carinata @ AMNH_BEE (2); CUIC_ENT (1)

Heriades carinatus @ BBSL (3)

Hoplitis producta @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Osmia tristella @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Ramularia variata @ BPI (7)
Pucciniaceae  Puccinia menthae @ 084199A (1); 084199B (1); BPI (250)
Reduviidae  Reduvius sonoraensis @ AMNH_PBI (2)
Synchytriaceae  Synchytrium holwayi @ BPI (15)
Uropyxidaceae  Aecidium menthae @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
   Top | See original


Monarda fistulosa L.

Monarda fistulosa plant

Family - Lamiaceae

Stems - To 1.5m tall, dichotomously branching above, from fibrous roots or slender rhizomes, stout, erect, 4-angled, green to purple (in strong sun), hollow, often glaucous, glabrous or sparse pubescent (especially at the nodes), fragrant.

Monarda fistulosa stem

Leaves - Opposite, decussate, petiolate. Petiole to +/-4cm long, puberulent, with adaxial groove (pubescent in groove), purple. Blade to +10cm long, 6cm broad, scabrous above, punctate, tomentoulose on veins and midrib below, truncate to subcordate at base, serrate, acuminate, fragrant.

Monarda fistulosa leaves

Inflorescence - Single terminal capitate cluster of +/-75 flowers. Flowers on pedicels to 1mm long. Pedicels tomentoulose. Clusters subtended by involucre of whorled foliaceous bracts.

Monarda fistulosa inflorescence Bracts subtending the inflorescence.

Monarda fistulosa inflorescence

Flowers - Corolla bilabiate, pink. Corolla tube to -2cm long, contracted and white at base in calyx tube, pink above and tomentoulose. Upper lip to 1.5cm long, folding around stamens and style, reflexed with age, pubescent externally with long cilia at apex, glabrous internally. Lower lip to 1.7cm long, with central linear lobe (notched at apex), glabrous internally, pubescent externally. Stamens 2, adnate at apex of corolla tube, exserted from upper lip of corolla. Filaments to 1.4cm long, white, glabrous. Anthers 2mm broad, with brown-purple margin. Style to +3cm long, white below, pinkish-purple at apex, pubescent. Stigma unequally two lobed. Ovary of 4 nutlets. Nutlets to 2mm long in fruit, blackish. Calyx tube to 1cm long, -2mm in diameter, 5-lobed, puberulent, 13-ribbed (nerved). Lobes linear-attenuate, 1.1mm long, dark purple, with spreading cilia on outer margin between lobes and dense erect cilia on margin internally.

Monarda fistulosa flowers Flowers close-up.

Flowering - May - August.

Habitat - Prairies, fields, open rocky woods, glade margins, thickets, roadsides, railroads.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info. - This striking species can be found throughout Missouri but is apparently absent in the extreme southeastern section of the state. It is an easy species to ID in the field. The brilliant, dense flower heads and pleasant fragrance make the plant a perennial favorite, literally. The plant is a big favorite among butterfly gardeners and is widely cultivated. It grows easily from seed.
The leaves have been used traditionally as medicine but today are used to flavor teas. The flowers can be used to dress up a salad or garnish a meal.
The species is sometimes broken up into different varieties but these integrate so I won't mention them.

Photographs taken at Logan Creek, Reynolds County, MO., 7-17-03.


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Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Monarda+fistulosa+var.+fistulosa&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Monarda+fistulosa+var.+fistulosa&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 20
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4703 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4704 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4705 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4706 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4707 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4708 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4709 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4710 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4711 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4712 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4713 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4714 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4715 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4716 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4717 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4718 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4719 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4720 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4721 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4722 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2018 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Monarda+fistulosa+var.+menthifolia&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Monarda+fistulosa+var.+menthifolia&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 10
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Wild Bergamot
ID: 0000 0000 0504 0671 [detail]
© 2004 Robert Sivinski

Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Wild Bergamot
ID: 0000 0000 0809 2183 [detail]
© 2009 Barry Breckling

Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Wild Bergamot
ID: 0000 0000 0809 2188 [detail]
© 2009 Barry Breckling

Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Wild Bergamot
ID: 0000 0000 0909 1963 [detail]
© 2009 Barry Breckling

Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
ID: 0000 0000 0811 3293 [detail]
© 2011 RT Hawke

Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Wild Bergamot
ID: 0000 0000 0915 0165 [detail]
© 2015 Barry Breckling

Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Wild Bergamot
ID: 0000 0000 0915 0166 [detail]
© 2015 Barry Breckling

Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Wild Bergamot
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4723 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Wild Bergamot
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4724 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia
Wild Bergamot
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4725 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2018 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Monarda+fistulosa&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Monarda+fistulosa&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 36
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Monarda fistulosa%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
ID: 0000 0000 0506 2595 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
Wild Bergamot
ID: 0000 0000 1108 0691 [detail]
© 2008 Zoya Akulova

Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
Wild Bergamot
ID: 0000 0000 1012 0827 [detail]
© 2012 Jean Pawek

Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
Wild Bergamot
ID: 0000 0000 1012 0828 [detail]
© 2012 Jean Pawek

Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
Wild Bergamot
ID: 0000 0000 1012 0829 [detail]
© 2012 Jean Pawek

Monarda fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa
Bergamot
ID: 0000 0000 0514 1583 [detail]
© 2014 Monty Rickard

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4703 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4704 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4705 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4706 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4707 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4708 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4709 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4710 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4711 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4712 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4713 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4714 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4715 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4716 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4717 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4718 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4719 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
Oswego-tea
ID: 0000 1111 1234 4720 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2018 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Updated: 2018-09-24 12:18:32 gmt
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