(Linnaeus) A. Gray, Manual. 273. 1848.
Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 397. 1753;
(Nuttall) Calder & Roy L. Taylor;
(Nuttall) S. F. Blake
arising from horizontal roots, 0.3-3 dm.
petiole 5-20(-30) mm, channeled adaxially, glabrous; blade dull and light green abaxially, shiny and green adaxially, 6-22 × 5-20 mm, base rounded to obtuse, apex obtuse to rounded.
peduncle 3-15 cm; peduncular bracts absent or 1(-2), oblanceolate to elliptic or orbiculate, (2.5-)4-4.5 × (2-)2.7-3.4 mm, membranous, margins entire or obscurely erose-denticulate.
calyx lobes spreading or reflexed in fruit, green or green with margins whitish green, 2-2.5 × 1.5-2 mm, margins erose-denticulate, apex rounded to obtuse; petals ovate to broadly ovate, 8-12 × 4-8 mm, margins minutely denticulate; stamens 4-8 mm; filament base 0.4-0.8 mm wide; anthers 2.2-2.5 mm, thecae whitish yellow to tan or light brown, tubules golden brown to brown, 0.4-0.8 mm, abruptly narrowed from thecae, lateral walls not touching, pores 0.2-0.4 × 0.2-0.4 mm; ovary smooth; style 2-5 mm; stigma 1.4-3.5 mm wide, lobes erect.
subglobose, 4-8 × 5-9 mm.
= 22, 24, 26, 32.
Flowering Jun-Aug. Moist forests, bogs; 10-3500 m; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Conn., Idaho, Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., Nev., N.H., N.Mex., N.Y., Ohio, Oreg., R.I., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Wash., Wis., Wyo.; Eurasia.
Most chromosome counts are 2
= 26; there are reports of 2
= 22, 24, and 32 (Á. Löve and D. Löve 1975b). The veracity of the latter reports has not been confirmed.
has been used by different Native American tribes as a dermatological aid, cold remedy, throat aid, and analgesic (D. E. Moerman 1998).
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