The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.5(FAO, 2001)
Body moderately elongate, and moderately compressed. Chin with 2 very long slender barbels, reaching to or slightly posterior to end of opercle. Snout long; dorsal profile of snout straight to slightly concave; mouth small, maxilla reaching little more than 1/2 distance to anterior edge of eye; a single row of well-spaced, stout, conical teeth in jaws; no teeth on roof of mouth. First gill arch with 6 or 7 gill rakers on upper limb, 22 to 26 on lower limb (total 29 to 33). Two well-separated dorsal fins, the first with VIII spines, the second fin with 9 soft rays; first dorsal-fin spine very short; longest dorsal-fin spine 1.45 to 1.75 times in head length; last ray of second dorsal and anal fins slightly longer than penultimate ray; anal fin with I spine and 6 soft rays; pectoral-fin rays 15 to 17 (usually 16). Lateral-line scales 27 or 28; 3 rows of scales between dorsal fins; 8 or 9 rows of scales along upper part of caudal peduncle. Body has 2 colour phases, the first yellowish grey with blue markings on the scales and a broad saddle-like yellow spot dorsally on caudal peduncle; irregular blue lines radiating from eye and below eye; second dorsal and anal fins with oblique blue lines; caudal fin with blue lines paralleling rays; other phase entirely yellow with a brighter yellow saddle-like spot dorsally on caudal peduncle.
Found on coral, rocky, or rubble bottoms of reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs. Juveniles form schools, adults usually solitary. Feeds primarily on small fishes, crustaceans, peanut worms, shrimps, crabs, octopi, and small gastropods during the day.
Widespread in the Indo-Pacific from the Red Sea south to Durban, South Africa (Ref. 5405) and east to the Hawaiian, Line, Marquesan, and Tuamoto islands; north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia and Rapa. Throughout Micronesia. It is a common s
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of Africa south to Durban, South Africa, east to the Hawaiian Islands, islands of French Polynesia and the Pitcairn Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, Japan south to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. published weight: 2.3 kg (Ref.
: 7. This species is distinguished by the following characters: pectoral rays 16 (rarely 15 or 17); gill rakers 6-7 + 22-26 = 29-33; body depth 3.25-3.8 in SL (body deeper with growth); head length (HL) 2.85-3.1 in SL; snout long, its length 1.61.8 in HL; eye small, the orbit diameter 5.3-8.95 in HL (SL 118-392 mm); barbels very long, 1.15 in HL to longer than head; longest dorsal spine 1.5-1.7 in HL; penultimate dorsal ray 1.1-1.2 in length of last dorsal ray; pectoral-fin length 1.5-1.7 in HL; pelvic-fin length 1.35-1.55 in HL. Colour of large adults yellowish gray, edges of the scales bright blue except ventrally, edges more broadly blue posteriorly; a large, hemispherical, saddle-like, yellow spot covering most of upper half of caudal peduncle; region around eye yellow with radiating short narrow blue bands; caudal fin with longitudinal blue bands; second dorsal and anal fins with narrow oblique blue bands; a second smaller color phase entirely yellow, with dorsal peduncular spot sometimes apparent by being brighter yellow than rest of body (Ref.
Found on coral (Ref.
), rocky, or rubble bottoms of reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs (Ref.
). Benthopelagic (Ref.
). Juveniles form schools, adults usually solitary. Feed primarily on small fishes, crustaceans, peanut worms, shrimps, crabs, octopi, and small gastropods during the day (Ref.
). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 24.5 - 29, mean 27.8 (based on 1578 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00596 - 0.01841), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 4.2 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Capuli, Estelita Emily
Olisa, Kristine Elaine Paz
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