The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.5(FAO, 2001)
Body slightly elongate, and moderately compressed. Chin with 2 moderately long slender barbels, reaching beyond rear edge of preopercle. Snout moderate; dorsal profile of head convex; mouth small, maxilla nearly or just reaching a vertical at posterior nostril; posterior end of maxilla evenly convex; a single row of well-spaced, stout, conical teeth in jaws; no teeth on roof of mouth. First gill arch with 6 or 7 gill rakers on upper limb, 20 to 23 on lower limb (total 26 to 30). Two well-separated dorsal fins, the first with VIII spines, the second fin with 9 soft rays; first dorsal-fin spine very short; longest dorsal-fin spine 1.45 to 1.75 times in head length; last ray of second dorsal and anal fins slightly longer than penultimate ray; anal fin with I spine and 6 soft rays; pectoral-fin rays 15 to 17 (usually 16). Lateral-line scales 27 or 28; 3 rows of scales between dorsal fins; 8 or 9 rows of scales along upper part of caudal peduncle. Body brownish yellow to light red, the edges of the scales darker, shading to silvery white below; centres of scales of back with a pale blue to pearly spot; a small reddish brown spot on upper side of body of adults just below seventh and eighth lateral-line scales; faint iridescent blue lines extending dorsoposteriorly and ventroanteriorly from eye, and often a parallel one on cheek and snout below eye; second dorsal and anal fins with faint pale blue to pink lines, alternating with yellowish.
Occurs singly or in small groups, over muddy, sandy, rubble, or seagrass bottoms of lagoon and seaward reefs, usually below 20 m.
Widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters of Indo-Pacific from Red Sea and East Africa to southern Japan and Lord Howe Island; throughout Micronesia. It is common in waters around Taiwan.
: 7. Diagnosis: Pectoral rays 16 (rarely 15 or 17). Gill rakers 6-7 + 29-23 (total 26-30). Body depth 2.95-3.55 in SL; head length (HL) 2.9-3.25 in SL; snout length 1.75-2.1 in HL; barbel length 1.15-1.35 in HL; posterior end of maxilla evenly convex; longest dorsal spine 1.45-1.75 in HL; penultimate dorsal ray 1.05-1.25 in length of last dorsal ray; pectoral-fin length 1.25-1.4 in HL; pelvic-fin length 1.4-1.6 in HL. Body brownish yellow to light red (deeper-dwelling fish more red), the edges of the scales darker, shading to silvery white ventrally; adults with a small reddish brown spot on upper side of body just below seventh and eighth lateral-line scales; an indistinct narrow yellow stripe often visible above the lateral line (more evident in juveniles and subadults); dorsal body scales often with a pale blue or pearly spot; faint iridescent blue lines extending dorsoposteriorly and ventroanteriorly from eye, and often a parallel one on the cheek below eye; second dorsal and anal fins with faint pale blue or pink narrow bands alternating with pale yellow. Although Gloerfelt-Tarp and Kailola (1984: 213) reported that this species (as
) has a dark brown peritoneum, the Bishop Museum specimens have a pale peritoneum (Ref.
Occurs singly or in small groups, over muddy, sandy, rubble, or seagrass bottoms of lagoon and seaward reefs, usually below 20 m. Flesh is fairly good for human consumption (Ref.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 23.2 - 28.1, mean 27.2 (based on 183 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00970 - 0.01490), b=3.09 (3.05 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.4 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.21-0.4).
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Capuli, Estelita Emily
Ortañez, Auda Kareen
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