D I S C O V E R    L I F E   
Bee Hunt! Odonata Lepidoptera 
  HomeAll Living ThingsIDnature guidesGlobal mapperAlbumsLabelsSearch
  AboutNewsEventsResearchEducationProjectsStudy sitesHelp


Phytolacca americana L.
PIGEON BERRY
Pokeweed; Inkberry; Pigeonberry; Pokeberry; Phytolacca decandra L; American pokeweed

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Phytolaccaceae   Phytolacca

Phytolacca americana, Pokeweed flowers, Howard County, MD, Helen Lowe Metzman ---.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Phytolacca americana, Pokeweed flowers, Howard County, MD, Helen Lowe Metzman ---.

Click on map for details about points.

Links
80x5 - 240x3 - 240x4 - 320x1 - 320x2 - 320x3 - 640x1 - 640x2
Set display option above.
Click on images to enlarge.
Phytolacca americana, Pokeweed flowers, Howard County, MD, Helen Lowe Metzman ---.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Phytolacca americana, Pokeweed flowers, Howard County, MD, Helen Lowe Metzman ---.
Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana

Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana

Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Phytolacca americana

Phytolacca americana, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Phytolacca americana, whole plant - in flower - general view
Phytolacca americana, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Phytolacca americana, inflorescence - whole - unspecified
Phytolacca americana, inflorescence - frontal view of flower
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Phytolacca americana, inflorescence - frontal view of flower

Phytolacca americana, stem - showing leaf bases
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Phytolacca americana, stem - showing leaf bases
Phytolacca americana, whole plant - in flower - general view
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Phytolacca americana, whole plant - in flower - general view

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
_  2007-09-29 16 @ (1)

phytolacca americana @ I_EHLK (3)

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Prociphilus ( @ NCSU (1)
Apidae  Apis mellifera @ PN- (3)

Ceratina dupla @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Diaporthaceae  Diaporthe aculeata @ BPI (1)

Diaporthe arctii @ BPI (1)

Phomopsis @ BPI (1)
Halictidae  Lasioglossum ephialtum @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Lasioglossum oceanicum @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Lasioglossum pilosum @ UCMS_ENT (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Cercospora flagellaris @ BPI (12)

Septoria phytolaccae @ BPI (2)
Phyllachoraceae  Phyllachora @ BPI (1)
Phytolaccaceae  Phytolacca americana @ I_EHLK (3)
Pleosporaceae  Alternaria concentrica @ BPI (1)
_  Cicadellidae @ PN- (2)

Gn_ms_flectotheca sp_wa0909msp100 @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Vespidae @ PN- (1)

go to Discover Life's Facebook group

Following modified from Flora of Taiwan, National Taiwan University
   Top | See original

&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 404 Not Found http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/udth/bin/fot1.exe/browse?bid=2&page=316

Following modified from Delaware Wildflowers
   Top | See original

Delaware Wildflowers  •  Scientific names

Phytolacca americana L. Pokeweed
Phytolaccaceae — Pokeweed family
Native
Phytolacca americana
The front yard
July 2001 Phytolacca americana
White Clay Creek State Park -- Creek Road
September 2010 Phytolacca americana
Paper Mill Park
September 2014

Search Google Delaware USDA

Copyright David G. Smith

Delaware Wildflowers main page

Following modified from MissouriPlants.com
   Top | See original


Phytolacca americana L.

Pokeweed

Phytolacca americana plant

Family - Phytolaccaceae

Stems - To 3m tall, erect, glabrous, greenish to purple-red, branching, herbaceous.

Phytolacca americana stem

Leaves - Alternate, entire, oblong, lanceolate-oblong, or ovate, petiolate, up to +30cm long, +15cm wide.

Inflorescence - Axillary racemes to +/-40cm long. Pedicels to 1cm long, 4-angled, tuberculate on angles, subtended by curling bract. Bract to 4mm long, 1mm broad. Pedicel with two small attenuate bracts alternate about at it's midpoint. Axis of inflorescence and pedicels whitish in flower, becoming red in fruit.

Phytolacca americana flowers Portion of inflorescence.

Flowers - Apetalous. Sepals 5, white or with a pinkish tinge, distinct, 2.2mm long and broad, slightly involute, broadly ovate to rotund, entire or slightly erose near apex. Stamens 10. Filaments pinkish-white, 2mm long, glabrous. Ovary 10-carpellate, green, globose to subglobose, 2.4mm in diameter, glabrous. Fruit a purple-black berry to -1cm in diameter.

Phytolacca americana flower Flower close-up.

Phytolacca americana fruits Fruits.

Flowering - May - October.

Habitat - Waste ground, disturbed sites, open woods, pastures, prairies, roadsides, railroads.

Origin - Native to U.S.

Other info . - All parts of this weedy species are toxic when mature but the young shoots and leaves can be eaten when cooked. Why take the chance when there is a grocery store on every corner? The "ink" from the berries will stain almost anything it touches.
This is an easy species to ID in the field because of its big, alternate leaves, reddish stems, long inflorescences, and purple berries.

Photographs taken in the Ozark Scenic Riverways, Shannon County, MO, 6-24-03 and 6-29-03.


Back Home


Following served from Plant Bug AMNH_PBI00000364 wa%201996%20l47%20h140
   
Top | See original context

Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
   
Top | See original

 
Kingdom Plantae  
 Phylum Tracheophyta  
 Class Magnoliopsida  
 Order Caryophyllales  
 Family Phytolaccaceae  
 Genus Phytolacca  
  Phytolacca americana    L. 
Provider: Ching-I Peng 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Citation: Flora of Taiwan 2nd ed. 2: 316, 1996; 台灣入侵及外來種圖鑑, 林業試驗所 2005
Name Code: 202738
   Alien     
Suggested Link    Discover Life    National Plant Genetic Resources Center    Flora of Taiwan 2nd eBooks (National Taiwan University)  
User Response:   upload Comments    upload Photo
 
陳育賢
2010-11-12 U/L
 
劉昌郎
2013-05-29 U/L
 
劉昌郎
2013-05-29 U/L
 
劉昌郎
2013-05-29 U/L
 
劉昌郎
2013-05-29 U/L
 
劉昌郎
2013-05-29 U/L
 
Previous Page       Home Page

Following modified from Flora of North America
   Top | See original

Link to Flora of North America home
 
All Floras       Advanced Search
FNA Vol. 4 Page 5, 6, 7 , 8 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 4 | Phytolaccaceae | Phytolacca

2. Phytolacca americana Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 441. 1753.

Pokeweed, poke, pokeberry

Plants to 3(-7) m. Leaves: petiole 1-6 cm; blade lanceolate to ovate, to 35 × 18 cm, base rounded to cordate, apex acuminate. Racemes open, proximalmost pedicels sometimes bearing 2-few flowers, erect to drooping, 6-30 cm; peduncle to 15 cm; pedicel 3-13 mm. Flowers: sepals 5, white or greenish white to pinkish or purplish, ovate to suborbiculate, equal to subequal, 2.5-3.3 mm; stamens (9-)10(-12) in 1 whorl; carpels 6-12, connate at least in proximal 1 /2; ovary 6-12-loculed. Berries purple-black, 6-11 mm diam. Seeds black, lenticular, 3 mm, shiny. 2 n = 36.

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora): North America; introduced in Europe.

The infraspecific taxonomy of Phytolacca americana has been disputed since J. K. Small (1905) recognized P. rigida as distinct from P. americana on the basis of its "permanently erect panicles" [sic] and "pedicels...much shorter than the diameter of the berries." J. W. Hardin (1964b) separated P. rigida from P. americana by the length of the raceme (2-12 cm in P. rigida , 5-30 cm in P. americana ) and the thickness and diameter of the xylem center of the peduncle (70% greater thickness in P. rigida , 17% greater diameter in P. americana ), but he found no discontinuities in any feature. J. W. Nowicke (1968) and J. D. Sauer (1952), among others, treated P. rigida as a synonym of P. americana . Most recently, D. B. Caulkins and R. Wyatt (1990) recognized P. rigida as a variety of P. americana .

The varieties are not always clearly distinct. Some specimens combine the erect inflorescences of var. rigida with the long pedicels of var. americana . Such intermediate plants can be seen as far north as coastal Delaware, sometimes growing with var. americana .

Collectors of Phytolacca americana should record carefully whether the inflorescences are erect, drooping, or intermediate between the extremes.

The fruits and seeds of Phytolacca americana are eaten and disseminated by birds and, probably, mammals. They are said to be an important source of food for mourning doves (A. C. Martin et al. 1951).

Phytolacca americana is well known to herbalists, cell biologists, and toxicologists. According to some accounts, its young leaves, after being boiled in two waters (the first being discarded) to deactivate toxins, are edible, even being available canned (they pose no culinary threat to spinach). Young shoots are eaten as a substitute for asparagus. Ripe berries were used to color wine and are eaten (cooked) in pies. Poke is used as an emetic, a purgative, a suppurative, a spring tonic, and a treatment for various skin maladies, especially hemorrhoids.

Pokeweed mitogen is a mixture of glycoprotein lectins that are powerful immune stimulants, promoting T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation and increased immun-oglobulin levels. "Accidental exposure to juices from Phytolacca americana via ingestion, breaks in the skin, and the conjunctiva has brought about hematological changes in numerous people, including researchers studying this species" (G. K. Rogers 1985). Poke antiviral proteins are of great interest for their broad, potent antiviral (including Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and antifungal properties (P. Wang et al. 1998). Saponins found in P. americana and P. dodecandra are lethal to the molluscan intermediate host of schistosomiasis (J. M. Pezzuto et al. 1984). The toxic compounds in P. americana are phytolaccatoxin and related triterpene saponins, the alkaloid phytolaccin, various histamines, and oxalic acid. When ingested, the roots, leaves, and fruits may poison animals, including Homo sapiens . Symptoms of poke poisoning include sweating, burning of the mouth and throat, severe gastritis, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, blurred vision, elevated white-blood-cell counts, unconsciousness, and, rarely, death.

"Poke" is thought to come from "pocan" or "puccoon," probably from the Algonquin term for a plant that contains dye.

SELECTED REFERENCES

Armesto, J. J., G. P. Cheplick, and M. J. McDonnell. 1983. Observations of the reproductive biology of Phytolacca americana (Phytolaccaceae). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 380-383. Caulkins, D. B. and R. Wyatt. 1990. Variation and taxonomy of Phytolacca americana and P. rigida in the southeastern United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 117: 357-367. Davis, J. I. 1985. Introgression in Central American Phytolacca (Phytolaccaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 72: 1944-1953. Hardin, J. W. 1964b. A comparison of Phytolacca americana and P. rigida . Castanea 29: 155-164. Sauer, J. D. 1950. Pokeweed, an old American herb. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. 38: 82-88. Sauer, J. D. 1951. Studies of variation in the weed genus Phytolacca . II. Latitudinally adapted variants within a North American species. Evolution 5: 273-279. Sauer, J. D. 1952. A geography of pokeweed. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 39: 113-125.

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Phytolacca+americana+var.+americana+&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Phytolacca+americana+var.+americana+&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 40
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Phytolacca americana var. americana%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1512 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1513 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1514 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1515 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1516 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1517 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1518 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1519 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1520 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1521 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1522 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 1111 0863 [detail]
© 2011 Barry Breckling

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
Pokeweed
(shown with Frangula (rhamnus) californica )
ID: 0000 0000 1112 0171 [detail]
© 2012 Jean Pawek

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 1112 0174 [detail]
© 2012 Jean Pawek

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 0913 0729 [detail]
© 2013 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 0913 0730 [detail]
© 2013 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 0913 0731 [detail]
© 2013 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 0913 0732 [detail]
© 2013 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 0913 0733 [detail]
© 2013 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 0913 0734 [detail]
© 2013 Keir Morse

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 0114 1524 [detail]
© 2014 Neal Kramer

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 0114 1523 [detail]
© 2014 Neal Kramer

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 0114 1521 [detail]
© 2014 Neal Kramer

Phytolacca americana var. americana
Phytolacca americana var. americana
Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 0114 1525 [detail]
© 2014 Neal Kramer

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2018 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Phytolacca+americana&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Phytolacca+americana&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 78
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Phytolacca americana%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
Pokeberry
ID: 8253 3202 4146 0055 [detail]
Gladys Lucille Smith
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
Pokeweed
ID: 0175 3301 2363 0049 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
Pokeberry
ID: 0175 3301 2363 0048 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
Pokeberry
ID: 8253 3202 4146 0056 [detail]
Gladys Lucille Smith
© 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
Pokeberry
ID: 0175 3301 2363 0051 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
Pokeweed
ID: 0175 3301 2363 0050 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 0904 0295 [detail]
© 2004 Tom Greer tbphotos@comcast.net

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
Pokeroot
ID: 3333 1111 0308 0037 [detail]
© University and Jepson Herbaria

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
ID: 0000 0000 0506 2545 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
ID: 0000 0000 0506 2546 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
ID: 0000 0000 0107 1317 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
ID: 0000 0000 0107 1318 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
ID: 0000 0000 0508 0057 [detail]
© 2008 Louis-M. Landry

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
ID: 0000 0000 0809 0927 [detail]
© 2009 Julie Kierstead Nelson

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
ID: 0000 0000 0610 0146 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
ID: 0000 0000 0610 0147 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
ID: 0000 0000 0610 0148 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
ID: 0000 0000 0610 0149 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 0710 1602 [detail]
© 2010 Jean Pawek

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 1112 1383 [detail]
© 2012 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 1112 1390 [detail]
© 2012 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 1112 1389 [detail]
© 2012 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 1112 1388 [detail]
© 2012 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Phytolacca americana
Phytolacca americana
American Pokeweed
ID: 0000 0000 1112 1387 [detail]
© 2012 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2018 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Updated: 2019-01-23 05:35:40 gmt
Discover Life | Top
© Designed by The Polistes Corporation