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Picea glauca (Moench) Voss
WHITE SPRUCE
Life   Plantae   Gymnospermae   Pinaceae   Picea

Picea glauca, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea glauca, whole tree - general

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Picea glauca, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea glauca, leaf - showing orientation on twig
Picea glauca, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea glauca, leaf - showing orientation on twig

Picea glauca, twig - showing attachment of needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea glauca, twig - showing attachment of needles
Picea glauca, twig - after fallen needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea glauca, twig - after fallen needles

Picea glauca, leaf - entire needle
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea glauca, leaf - entire needle
Picea glauca, bark - of a medium tree or large branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea glauca, bark - of a medium tree or large branch

Picea glauca, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Picea glauca, cone - female - mature open
Picea glauca
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Picea glauca

Picea glauca
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Picea glauca

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Agaricaceae  Phoma strobiligena @ BPI (1)
Annulatascaceae  Ceratostomella piceaperda @ BPI (3)
Aphididae  Cinara ( @ CSCA_TCN (5)

Elatobium abietinum @ NCSU_ENT (2)

Mindarus abietinus @ CSCA_TCN (2)
Atheliaceae  Amphinema byssoides @ BPI (1)

Athelia byssina @ BPI (1)

Athelia neuhoffii @ BPI (1)
Biatorellaceae  Biatorella resinae @ BPI (1)
Boreostereaceae  Columnocystis abietina @ BPI (1)
Ceratocystidaceae  Ceratocystis sparsa @ BPI (1)
Chionosphaeraceae  Stilbum resinarium @ BPI (1)
Coleosporiaceae  Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli @ BPI (19)

Chrysomyxa empetri @ BPI (20)

Chrysomyxa ledi @ BPI (2)

Chrysomyxa ledicola @ BPI (26)

Chrysomyxa pyrolae @ BPI (6)

Chrysomyxa pyrolata @ BPI (2)

Chrysomyxa weirii @ BPI (3)

Chrysomyxa woroninii @ BPI (2)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora olivacea @ BPI (1)

Coniophora puteana @ BPI (2)
Corticiaceae  Corticium galactinum @ BPI (3)
Cronartiaceae  Peridermium @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Tapesia sanguinea @ BPI (1)
Gloeophyllaceae  Gloeophyllum sepiarium @ BPI (1)
Helvellaceae  Helvella crispa @ BPI (1)

Helvella elastica @ BPI (1)
Hemiphacidiaceae  Sarcotrochila piniperda @ BPI (2)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Dasyscyphus agassizii @ BPI (1)

Dasyscyphus resinarius @ BPI (3)
Hymenochaetaceae  Phellinus chrysoloma @ BPI (2)
Lophiostomataceae  Herpotrichia juniperi @ BPI (1)
Meruliaceae  Merulius ambiguus @ BPI (1)
Miridae  Atractotomus cooperi @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Atractotomus kolenatii @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Atractotomus magnicornis @ AMNH_PBI (28); BPBM_TCN (2)

Ceratocapsus luteus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Dichaetocoris piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Dichrooscytus latifrons @ AMNH_PBI (41)

Neolygus omnivagus @ AMNH_IZC (1)

Orthotylus pennsylvanicus @ AMNH_PBI (16); AMNH_IZC (3)

Phytocoris buenoi @ AMNH_ENT (3)

Phytocoris crawfordi @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Piceophylus keltoni @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Pilophorus americanus @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Pilophorus piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (42)

Pilophorus uhleri @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Pinalitus approximatus @ AMNH_PBI (2); AMNH_ENT (34)

Pinalitus rubricatus @ AMNH_PBI (6); AMNH_ENT (22)

Plagiognathus tumidifrons @ AMNH_PBI (5)

Plagiognathus vitellinus @ AMNH_PBI (17)

Psallovius piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (30)
Morchellaceae  Costantinella micheneri @ BPI (1)
Nectriaceae  Nectria fuckeliana @ BPI (1)
Ostreidae  Ostreola consociata @ BPI (1)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora gigantea @ BPI (1)

Peniophora subincarnata @ BPI (1)
Phacidiaceae  Phacidium infestans @ BPI (1)
Phanerochaetaceae  Ceraceomyces serpens @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Fomes cajanderi @ BPI (3)

Fomes nigrolimitatus @ BPI (1)

Fomes pini @ BPI (5)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (17)

Fomes roseus @ BPI (3)

Lenzites saepiaria @ BPI (3)

Polyporus abietinus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus alboluteus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus anceps @ BPI (4)

Polyporus balsameus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus caesius @ BPI (1)

Polyporus circinatus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus elegans @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fibrillosus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus guttulatus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus pargamenus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus schweinitzii @ BPI (3)

Polyporus tomentosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (1)

Poria crustulina @ BPI (2)

Poria lenis @ BPI (1)

Poria sinuosa @ BPI (1)

Poria taxicola @ BPI (2)

Poria xantha @ BPI (1)

Pycnoporellus fulgens @ BPI (1)

Trametes heteromorpha @ BPI (3)

Trametes serialis @ BPI (2)

Trametes variiformis @ BPI (2)
Pucciniastraceae  Melampsorella caryophyllacearum @ BPI (2)

Melampsorella cerastii @ BPI (1)

Pucciniastrum americanum @ 143879B (1); 143879A (1)
Ramariaceae  Kavinia alboviridis @ BPI (1)
Reduviidae  Rasahus @ AMNH_PBI (3)
Rhytismataceae  Bifusella crepidiformis @ BPI (3)

Lirula brevispora @ BPI (1)

Lophodermium filiforme @ BPI (3)

Lophodermium piceae @ BPI (1)

Tryblidiopsis pinastri @ BPI (3)
Schizoporaceae  Hyphodontia alutaria @ BPI (1)
Sebacinaceae  Sebacina calcea @ BPI (1)
Sistotremataceae  Trechispora vaga @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Aleurocystidiellum subcruentatum @ BPI (3)

Aleurodiscus amorphus @ BPI (3)

Aleurodiscus canadensis @ BPI (2)

Aleurodiscus lividocoeruleus @ BPI (1)

Gloeocystidiellum citrinum @ BPI (1)

Stereum radiatum @ BPI (3)

Stereum sanguinolentum @ BPI (3)
Thelephoraceae  Pseudotomentella nigra @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora kunzei @ BPI (2)

Valsa kunzei @ BPI (1)
Venturiaceae  Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii @ BPI (2)
_  Aurantiporellus alboluteus @ BPI (1)

Naevia piniperda @ BPI (1)

Phragmotrichum chailletii @ BPI (1)

Sirococcus piceicola @ BPI (1)

Stigmina lautii @ BPI (1)

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Following modified from The Gymnosperm Database
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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://conifers.org/pi/Picea_glauca.php

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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 301 Moved Permanently http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/picea/glauca.htm

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&pull 20q v5.145 20180528: Error 500 Can't connect to www.cnr.vt.edu:80 http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/pglauca.htm

Following modified from Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture
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https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PIGL ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=PIGL
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=PIGL ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=PIGL
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Picea glauca (Moench) Voss
white spruce

Image of Picea glauca

General Information
Symbol: PIGL
Group: Gymnosperm
Family: Pinaceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit : Tree
Native Status : AK   N
CAN   N
L48   N
SPM   N
Characteristics
Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
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Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Picea thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Steve Hurst. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . United States, AK. Usage Requirements .

P. Freeman Heim. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, WI. 1948. Usage Requirements .

R.K. LeBarron. Provided by National Agricultural Library . Originally from USDA Forest Service . United States, MN, Superior National Forest. 1938. Usage Requirements .

©Mark W. Skinner. United States, AK, Teller. August 15, 1990. Usage Requirements .

©Mark W. Skinner. United States, AK, Teller. August 15, 1990. Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 1: 61. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
PICA10 Picea canadensis (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Coniferophyta – Conifers
Class Pinopsida
Order Pinales
Family Pinaceae – Pine family
Genus Picea A. Dietr. – spruce
Species Picea glauca (Moench) Voss – white spruce

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Alaska FACU
Arid West FAC
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont FACU
Great Plains FACU
Midwest FACU
Northcentral & Northeast FACU
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FAC

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (PIGL)
Flora of North America (PIGL)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (PICA10)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (PIGL)
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (PIGL)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (PIGL)
Native Plants Network (PIGL)
USDA Forest Service Fire Effects Information System (PIGL)
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (PIGL)
Related Websites
BorealForest.org (PIGL)
CT-University of Connecticut Plant Database (PIGL)
Canada-British Columbia-Forests and Range (PIGL)
Forestry Images (PIGL)
Google Image Search (PIGL)
IL-Selecting Trees for your Home (PIGL)
IL-UI Plants (PIGL)
MI-Michigan State University Extension (PIGL)
MO-Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder (PIGL)
ND-North Dakota State University Extension (PIGL)
Natural History of the North Woods (PIGL)
Nearctica-Native Conifers of North America (PIGL)
SD-State Plants (PIGL)
USDA FS-Fact Sheet (University of Florida) (PIGL)
USDA Forest Service-Silvics of North America (PIGL)
USFS, Center for Wood Anatomy Research (PIGL)
USFS-Silvics of North America (PIGL)
VA-Virginia Tech Dendrology (PIGL)
WI-Trees of Wisconsin (UofW-Green Bay) (PIGL)
WI-Wisconsin Botanical Information System (PIGL)
www.conifers.org (PIGL)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Quinlan Low Low

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Quinlan Moderate High

Sources

Quinlan, S.E., and S. Cuccarese. 2004. Native Alaskan and exotic plants used by wildlife . Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Anchorage.

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover
High Average 25-50% of diet Regular source of cover
Low 5-10% of diet Infrequently used as cover
Minor 2-5% of diet Sparsely used as cover
Moderate Average 10-25% of diet Occasional source of cover


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 2 | Pinaceae | Picea

4. Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 16: 93. 1907.

White spruce, western white spruce, Porsild spruce, Black Hills spruce, épinette blanche

Pinus glauca Moench, Verz. Ausländ. Bäume, 73. 1785; Abies canadensis Miller; Picea alba (Aiton) Link; P . alba var. albertiana (S.Brown) Beissner; P . albertiana S.Brown; P . canadensis (Miller) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenburg; P . canadensis var. glauca (Moench) Sudworth; P . glauca var. albertiana (S.Brown) Sargent; P . glauca var. densata L. H. Bailey; P . glauca var. porsildii Raup; Pinus alba Aiton

Trees to 30m; trunk to 1m diam.; crown broadly conic to spirelike. Bark gray-brown. Branches slightly drooping; twigs not pendent, rather slender, pinkish brown, glabrous. Buds orange-brown, 3--6mm, apex rounded. Leaves (0.8--)1.5--2(--2.5)cm, 4-angled in cross section, rigid, blue-green, bearing stomates on all surfaces, apex sharp-pointed. Seed cones 2.5--6(--8)cm; scales fan-shaped, broadest near rounded apex, 10--16 ´ 9--13mm, flexuous, margin at apex ± entire, apex extending 0.5--3mm beyond seed-wing impression. 2 n =24.

Muskegs, bogs, and river banks to montane slopes; 0--1000m; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Maine, Mich., Minn., Mont., N.H., N.Y., S.Dak., Vt., Wis., Wyo.

In areas of sympatry Picea glauca and P . engelmannii regularly hybridize and intergrade completely (R.Daubenmire 1974; E.H. Garman 1957; K.W. Horton 1959; L.Roche 1969; T.M.C. Taylor 1959). This has greatly complicated the taxonomy of P . glauca , a dominant tree of interior forests of Canada and Alaska. Three varieties have been recognized. Picea glauca var. albertiana was described as having unusually prominent leaf bases, cones nearly as broad as long, cone scales acute and broader than long, and an unusually narrow crown. These are common characteristics of hybrids (e.g., R.Daubenmire 1974). Picea glauca var. porsildii was described as differing from the type variety by having smooth bark with resin blisters, short angular cone scales, an unusually broad crown, and pubescent twigs. These characteristics, also largely intermediate between those of P . glauca var. glauca and P . engelmannii , may reflect hybridization where the species overlap. Although the two varieties noted above are reported from well beyond the range of sympatry, the diagnostic characteristics are not well correlated and occur rather sporadically. Also the most distinctive feature of the varieties, the crown shape, is in part responsive to competitive pressures. Because of the problems of hybridization and sporadic occurrence of key characters, P . glauca is treated here in the broad sense.

Picea glauca (white spruce) is the provincial tree of Manitoba and the state tree (as Black Hills spruce) of South Dakota.

SELECTED REFERENCES

LaRoi, G.H. and J.R. Dugle. 1968. A systematic and genecological study of Picea glauca and P . engelmannii , using paper chromatography of needle extracts. Canad. J. Bot. 46: 649--687. Little, E.L. Jr. and S.S. Pauley. 1958. A natural hybrid between black and white spruce in Minnesota. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 60: 202--211.

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Picea+glauca&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Picea+glauca&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Plant

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Number of matches : 27
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Picea glauca%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
White Spruce
ID: 0000 0000 0306 1460 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0107 1319 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0107 1320 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0107 1321 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0107 1322 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0107 1323 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0107 1324 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0107 1325 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
White Spruce
ID: 0000 0000 0107 1338 [detail]
© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
Black Hills Spruce
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1545 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
Black Hills Spruce
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1546 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
Black Hills Spruce
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1547 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
Black Hills Spruce
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1548 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
Black Hills Spruce
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1549 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
Black Hills Spruce
ID: 0000 1111 2222 1550 [detail]
© 2016 Keir Morse

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0508 0108 [detail]
© 2008 Louis-M. Landry

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0508 0109 [detail]
© 2008 Louis-M. Landry

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0610 0150 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0610 0151 [detail]
© 2010 Louis-M. Landry

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
White Spruce
ID: 6666 6666 0213 0021 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2013 California Academy of Sciences

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0916 2669 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0916 2670 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 0916 2671 [detail]
© 2016 Zoya Akulova

Picea glauca
Picea glauca
ID: 0000 0000 1119 0075 [detail]
© 2019 Zoya Akulova

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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